Parental care and reproductive development

These findings suggest a relation between parental care and reproductive development in the offspring. An important question concerns the identity of critical mechanisms for such effects. Phenotypic plasticity in reproductive tactics have been studied from the point of ultimate causation (Tinbergen, 1972), which refers to the impact of such variations on reproductive fitness. In contrast, proximal causation, which refers to more immediate cause-effect relations, such as genomic polymorphisms or...

Placental Regulation Of Maternal Endocrine Function And Behavior

The placenta, developed from the cell lineage of fetal trophectoderm, exerts considerable influence on maternal endocrine function. Progesterone is the steroid hormone that dominates pregnancy and is necessary to sustain pregnancy. High levels of progesterone during pregnancy are a function of the fetal placenta either directly (primates) or indirectly (rodents) by production of placental hormones that sustain the ovarian corpus luteum. Progesterone has a broad spectrum of effects by acting on...

Cellular Basis Of fru Functions In Male Courtship Behavior

In neurobiology, it is critical to determine the neural circuit underlying respective behavior. It is a demanding issue to describe neural connections formed by fru-expressing neurons to illustrate the entire network that determines male courtship behavior. To this end, efforts have been made to identify individual neurons that express Fru (Billeter and Goodwin, 2004 Manoli et al., 2005 Stockinger et al., 2005). To identify fru-expressing neurons, it is crucial to obtain reporter strains that...

CV1aR in the ventral pallidum

Genetic and pharmacological tools have indeed implicated V1aR in the ventral pallidum as a modulator of social bonding behavior. Increasing the numbers of receptors in the ventral pallidum of the male prairie vole by viral vector gene transfer facilitated partner preference formation in the male prairie vole (Pitkow et al., 2001). A site-specific antagonist for the V1aR administered to the ventral pallidum prior to mating and cohabiting with a female eliminated partner preference formation in...

Sexual dimorphism in the C elegans nervous system

The sex differences exhibited by the C. elegans nervous system are of two general forms. First, and more conspicuous, is the presence of sex-specific neurons in both hermaphrodites and males (Fig. 1.2A Table 1.1). This sex-specific component of the nervous system comprises 8 neurons in hermaphrodites and 89 in males, all of which are thought to function in circuits dedicated to sexually dimorphic behavior. In both sexes, the sex-specific nervous system is overlaid onto the 294 neurons common to...