Save Your Marriage

Save The Marriage

Lee Baucom, Ph. D. shows couples with marriage troubles a new way to save their marriage that is far more effective than any marriage counselor in this marriage course. In 4 easy-to-read modules, Dr. Baucom shows the step by step way to save a marriage that is in danger of ending any day. These show the top 5 mistakes that most people make in marriage, the REAL secrets to a happy marriage, why marriage counseling can actually HURT your marriage more, and how to move beyond your emotions into action. This module can actually have you saving your marriage in less than an hour, sometimes even 10 minutes. This book also comes with 4 bonus gifts free: Coping With a Midlife Marriage Crisis, Recovering from an Affair, 5 Rules for Fighting Fair, and an eBook written by a couple who was on the edge of divorce and the methods they used to get a happy marriage back. Marriage can be hard, but divorce is harder, on you and your children. Why risk it? Continue reading...

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The Relationship Rewrite Method

Getting your man back is a totally different phenomenon than wooing him the first time. But with this new step-by-step guide full of tips and tricks, you will have him tumbling back towards you. It is possible considering the creator of the program. James Bauer, better known as the guru behind the website, have been helping people like you in mending their relationships. He has been tending to a variety of clients and because of this interaction, and his previous expertise in relationship science, he has mounted a great deal of understanding of the subject matter. The author has developed this program as a very easy guide that can be followed by everyone. It is a PDF that will change your life for good just the way you want it. It works on a very basic formula of planting a seed of the same tree that you had groomed all those years. With this program, I assure your relationship will develop faster and better than what it was before. You will see how everything goes beyond your expectations and how your bond with your man becomes stronger than before. There are no bonuses with this one, but I assure you won't need any. Continue reading...

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Cognitive Therapy for Different Populations and in Different Settings

Individual cognitive therapy is the most common format, although couples, family, groups and organisational consultancy formats have also been developed. In individual therapy it is common to involve spouses, friends, parents or others, either as informants or as people who can help the client change (see Baucom et al, 1998). Cognitive couple therapy has been shown to be acceptable and effective in depression in one spouse, chronic interpersonal problems, and marital problems (Baucom et al., 1998 Dattilio & Padesky, 1990 Epstein & Baucom, 1989). Cognitive therapy in group format has been shown to be acceptable and effective for depression (Robinson, Berman & Neimeyer, 1990) and social phobia (Heimberg etal., 1993).

Communication Training

Relationship distress between partners can give rise to a dramatic increase in the risk of clinical depression. About half of the women who are in treatment for depression report marital difficulties. In some cases individual therapy for the depressed patient is inadequate and needs to be supplemented with treatment efforts focused on the relationship issues. Three controlled studies examined the effect of couple's therapy (communication training) on depression (Beach & O'Leary, 1992 Emanuels-Zuurveen & Emmelkamp 1996 Jacobson et al., 1991). There was no overall difference in mood improvement between patients in the individual cognitive behavioural therapy versus those in couple's therapy but relationship improvement was significantly higher among patients in couple's therapy. These findings suggest that depressed patients with marital difficulties are better served by couple's therapy than by individual cognitive behavioural therapy. Moreover, the additional benefit in terms of...

Prioritization of Treatment Strategies

Behavioural couple therapy (BCT) is as effective as individual CBT not only with alcohol abuse but also with depression and anxiety disorders (Emmelkamp & Vedel, 2002). Because of Mick's early retirement and the consequences this was going to have on their relationship, and taking into account their overall low marital satisfaction, we decided to offer Dianne and her husband BCT, focusing on the drinking problem as well as their relationship. If still needed, the spouse-aided therapy for alcohol abuse could be supplemented by spouse-aided therapy for depression or anxiety. Because Dianne had already started using Acamprostate, we agreed that she would continue using the anti-craving agent during the course of our treatment.

Structuring The Treatment In

Are told that keeping them alive is the highest priority in the treatment. The second target is to decrease therapy-interfering behaviours (behaviours on the part of the therapist, such as missing appointments, beginning the session late, taking calls during session, or on the part of the client, such as non-compliance, coming late, missing appointments) that reduce the motivation of the other party to continue in the therapy. Addressing problems in the relationship head on and immediately, reduces therapist and client burnout and dropout. The third Stage 1 target addresses other quality of life issues, such as substance abuse, eating-disordered behaviours, marital difficulties, vocational issues or high-risk sexual behaviour. While reducing the targeted behaviours, clients work to enhance their capabilities, and therefore maintain a reduction in the targeted behaviours by learning new behaviours in skills training.

Enhancing Therapists Capabilities and Motivation

Comprehensive DBT can be modified for different settings. For example, an inpatient unit may decide to provide a comprehensive treatment, meeting all criteria through the different modes in the treatment. Capabilities can be enhanced on an inpatient unit through psychopharmacology, patient education and through skills training. Motivation on an inpatient unit is often improved by conjoint psychopharmocology and milieu treatment. Discharge planning with an emphasis on skills used for relapse prevention also supports the function of generalization as well as milieu, staff acting as skills coaches for clients on an inpatient or partial hospitalization unit. The environment in an inpatient unit is structured through the structuring of the administrative hierarchy as well as through family therapy and family education or accessing vocational financial support through social work services. Finally, in an inpatient DBT programme, therapists' capabilities and motivation are usually enhanced...

Homosexual Relationships

The conception of aging homosexuals as lonely, depressed, and sexually frustrated is an overgeneralization. Living in a predominantly heterosexual society creates problems for older homosexuals, but there are also compensations. Among the problems are discrimination against homosexuals by society as a whole, disrespect from family members, inability to have their marriages sanctioned by law, and, in some cases, lack of visitation rights with their children by former marriages. One advantage of homosexuality, particularly in older adulthood and especially for lesbians, is the availability of partners (Raphael & Robinson, 1980). One often hears about wedded bliss or matrimonial harmony, but these are obviously not descriptive of many conjugal relationships. It may be that marriages are made in heaven, though it is doubtful unless one is a bride of Christ or married to the church. Duration is certainly not a sure-fire indicator of marital happiness. Most people who get married probably...

Stressful Life Events

The individual experiencing them (e.g., financial problems marital discord, separation, or divorce legal difficulties) and those that are truly adventitious (e.g., illness or death of a relative natural disasters). When dependent (or controllable) events are examined separately, genetic influences account for an estimated 31 of the variation in their occurrence, whereas independent (or uncontrollable) events are much less heritable, with a weighted average heritability of 17 . Some life event scales include items that are clearly positive (e.g., marriage, improved financial circumstances), often based on a model of stress that emphasizes the amount of readjustment required to adapt to recent events, rather than the undesirability or threat implied by those events (Turner and Wheaton, 1995). The three studies that administered such scales nonetheless permit a distinction between positive and negative life events, and interestingly, when analyzed separately the aggregate heritability of...

Project Title Hostility Marital Interaction And Health In Aging

Summary Hostility confers increased risk of coronary heart disease, presumably through the mechanism of cardiovascular reactivity to interpersonal stressors. Marriage is an important context for this mechanism. However, an adult developmental perspective suggests that marital conflict may be a more central issue for trait hostility among middle- aged spouses, whereas the stress of collaboration may be important for hostility in older couples. Guided by a model of individual, spouse, and couple effects of hostility, the proposed study examines the effects of hostility on immediate behavioral and psychophysiological responses to marital conflict and collaboration, and on health outcomes of ambulatory blood pressure, coronary artery disease, marital adjustment, and cognitive functioning. The major aims are to examine (a) how the effect of hostility on behavioral and cardiovascular responses may differ for middle-aged and older adults, during conflict and collaborative problem solving,...

Cardiovascular Measures

Increase in ambulatory systolic BP of 3 mmHg, whereas participants with job strain who also had highly cohesive marriages showed a reduction of systolic BP of 3 mmHg. Barnett et al (2005) found that poor marital quality was associated with elevated ambulatory diastolic blood pressure but not with clinic measures, and these cardiovascular effects were coupled with elevated stress ratings over the day.

Longterm Effects Of Cancer Diagnosis And Treatment On Survivors Family Members

The literature on the effect of cancer diagnosis and treatment on family members is sparse.74 Of studies in this area, most have focused on the impact of cancer soon after diagnosis, during recurrence, or at the terminal phase of the disease.75-77 One study shows that partners of men with prostate cancer, generally from small convenience samples, report more distress than their sick partners, but also believe that their partners are more distressed. The only reviewed study of long-term prostate cancer survivors found that couples' health-related QOL was associated with marital satisfaction.61 Distress was inversely related to levels of family support. The men's focus of concern, on their sexual functioning (i.e., impotence), was not shared to an equal degree by their non-sick partners.78,79 The most relevant study included

Psychological Practice Determining Individual Capacity to Participate in Mediation

Kingdom, social scientific research has helped to confirm the hypothesis that supportive interventions employed in family therapy and individual psychotherapy exert a positive influence over the outcome of the mediation process as well (Robinson, 1988). Victims in England, participating in face-to-face mediation with offenders, reported approximately 14 greater satisfaction as a result of this psychological informed modality than with less direct methods of confrontation and or reintegration (Umbreidt, 2001). Canadian investigators have noted increasing acknowledgment on the part of attorneys that psychological screening is an important pre-mediation function in successful dispute resolution (Girdner, 1990 Lee, Beauregard and Hunsley, 1998 McCoy and Hedeen, 1998).

Studies Of Psychological Treatments In Bipolar Disorders

Family or Couples Therapy Four small randomized trials all identified that family therapy may be an important adjunct to pharmacotherapy in BP. Honig et al. (1997) demonstrated that six sessions of a multi-family psychoeducational intervention (n 23) produced a non-significantly greater reduction in expressed emotion in the experimental as compared to the waiting-list control group (n 23). Van Gent, Vogtlander & Vrendendaal (1998) compared 'couples psycho-education' (n 14) with usual treatment (n 12) and found that those couples receiving the active intervention showed greater knowledge of BP and its treatment and improved coping skills at the end of the psychoeducation sessions and at six month follow-up. Glick et al. (1994) studied 50 inpatients of whom 19 had been admitted following a BP relapse. They demonstrated that those randomly allocated to additional family therapy (n 12) showed significant improvements in social and work functioning and family attitudes compared with those...

Environmental adversity and sexual maturation

Suggested that environmental adversity is associated with a decreased quality of parental care that directly leads to early menarche and earlier onset of sexual activity in human females. There is strong evidence that insecure attachment is more prevalent in populations living under conditions of risk and uncertainty (i.e., poverty and inequality Belsky, 1997a McLoyd, 1990 Repetti, et al., 2002 and see above). The age of menarche is influenced by the quality of family function (Ellis et al., 1999), number of major life events (Coall and Chisholm, 2003 Surbey, 1990) family conflict (Graber et al., 1995 Moffitt et al., 1992), marital conflict (Kim and Smith, 1998a,b Wierson et al., 1993), and negative family relationships (Ellis and Garber, 2000 Kim et al., 1997). Despite some exceptions (Campbell and Udry, 1995 Graber et al., 1995), the majority of studies show that childhood psychosocial stress predicts earlier menarche. There is strong evidence for familial influences on sexual...

Interpersonal Psychotherapy Rationale

Various prognostic factors have been examined in relation to IPT. Marital adjustment in the NIMH study was reported to show significant improvement with treatment but no specific interaction with treatment type and was mediated by change in depression (Kung & Elkin, 2000). Poorer pre-treatment adjustment was revealed as an indicator of poor prognosis at the end of treatment and poorer end-of-treatment marital functioning was a negative indicator for follow up. Imber et al. (1990), reporting on the same sample, revealed the importance of tailoring therapy to patients' strengths as IPT produced better outcome in those patients with lowest social dysfunction at the start of treatment. Repeated studies have examined the impact of co-morbid anxiety symptoms and while GAD symptoms have been found to slow response to treatment they have not been associated with poorer outcome (Brown et al., 1996). Panic agoraphobic symptoms however have been associated with higher early termination rates and...

Behaviour Therapy Rationale

As with other models of therapy for depression, behaviour therapy has also been employed as a couples therapy. When compared with individual CBT (Jacobson et al., 1991) found no difference in capacity to reduce depressive symptoms and reported that only those receiving behavioural marital therapy (BMT) demonstrated a significant improvement in marital adjustment. Similarly, Beach & O'Leary (1992) found BMT and CT to be equally effective in reducing depression and superior to waiting list controls but only BMT improved the marital relationship. Both studies found that depressive symptoms were mediated by marital adjustment, suggesting a specific mechanism of change whereby depression reduces with increase marital satisfaction. Behavioural marital therapy progresses through three stages, employing social learning, behavioural change and cognitive techniques. The initial phase concentrates on the patterns of reinforcement that exist within the couple and aims to eliminate the stressors...

Psychotherapeutic procedures

The basis of the treatment program is a four-step procedure developed, practiced and described by LoPiccolo and Friedman (1988). As almost every treatment program aimed at sexual dysfunctions, the LoPiccolo and Friedman program is heavily influenced by the work of Masters and Johnson (1970). It is also, in one way or another, influenced by a series of speculations as to the cause of low sexual desire. The number of potential causes listed by LoPiccolo and Friedman (1988) is impressive indeed, and goes far beyond my previous discussion of etiology. The potential causes are religious orthodoxy, anhedonic or obsessive-compulsive personality, problems with gender identity or object choice, sexual phobias and aversions, fear of loss of control over sexual urges, masked sexual deviation, fear of pregnancy, depression, side effects of drugs, concerns about aging, lack of attraction to the partner, poor sexual skills in the partner, marital conflict, fear of closeness, couple differences...

Conjoint IPT for Depressed Patients with Marital Disputes IPTCM

It is well established that marital conflict, separation and divorce can precipitate or complicate depressive episodes (Rounsaville et al., 1979). Some clinicians have feared that individual psychotherapy for depressed patients in marital disputes can lead to premature rupture of marriages (Gurman & Kniskern, 1978). To test and address these concerns, Klerman and Weissman developed an IPT manual for conjoint therapy of depressed patients with marital disputes (Klerman & Weissman, 1993). Both spouses participate in all sessions and treatment focuses on the current marital dispute. Eighteen patients with major depression linked to the onset or exacerbation of marital disputes were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of either individual IPT or IPT-CM. Patients in both treatments showed similar improvement in depressive symptoms but patients receiving IPT-CM reported significantly better marital adjustment, marital affection and sexual relations than did individual IPT patients (Foley et al.,...


However, samples of breast cancer survivors have demonstrated less profound cancer impact.22 As noted, breast cancer survivors may have a quality of life as good as or better than age-matched control women.23 Similar rates of sexual dysfunction are seen between breast cancer survivors and postmenopausal women who have not had cancer.24 Marital breakdown was no more common among women after

Problem Analysis

When conducting a macroanalysis, the therapist charts the various problem domains while seeking possible connections between the problems. For instance, a patient may be depressed and also experience marital distress. It is of importance to ascertain whether the depression is associated with the marital problems, or whether these are two independent problem areas. If there is a connection between the depression and the marital problems, the therapist should examine the nature of the relation. If the marital distress is fundamental to the depression it may be appropriate to direct early treatment efforts to improving the relationship. With some patients the relation is reversed the depression causes the marital distress. In this latter case it is not useful to first address the distress. For an illustration of a macroanalysis we refer the reader to Figure 4.3.

Marital Adjustment

According to the Maudsley Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire (MMQ) (Arrindell, Emmelkamp & Bast, 1983). Mick was clearly more negative about their relationship than Dianne as is evident from the fact that Mick had a score of 42 while Dianne had a score of 20 on marital dissatisfaction. The Level of Expressed Emotion (LEE) (Cole & Kazarian, 1988) showed that Mick experienced little emotional support from his wife. Dianne was more positive, finding Mick supportive in some areas. To establish if there was any form of violence or fear of violence, verbal or physical abuse, we used the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) (Straus, 1979) and interviewed both partners. In the past year Dianne had hit her


Concerning Dianne, there were four major related and intertwining issues her drinking, her depressive mood, her anxious symptoms and marital problems. In addition, Dianne met criteria for both the avoidant personality disorder and the obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.


During the course of the treatment Mick's marital dissatisfaction decreased from 41 to 22 (MMQ). Dianne's score did not change significantly. At post-treatment both partners were near the cut-off point differentiating martially distressed from non-martially distressed couples. The LEE showed Mick to experience more emotional support from his wife compared to the situation before treatment. Dianne seemed to find Mick somewhat less supportive then before treatment.


Antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs are the most common treatments for psychotic depression and schizophrenia, but electroshock therapy is still employed in some cases. Antianxiety drugs are quite popular foi treating anxiety disorders, and short- and long-term psychotherapies are also used, Individual psychotherapy, behavioral and cognitive therapies, group therapy, and family therapy have all been found to be effective in treating a variety of patients young and old, nonpsychotic and psychotic, mildly and severely disturbed (Gatz, Popkin, Pino, & VandenBos, 1985). The goals of psychotherapy vary with the presenting symptoms and with other characteristics of the patient. In addition to the relief of symptoms, the goals of psychotherapy may include delaying physical and psychological deterioration enabling the patient to adapt to his or her current situation improving the patient's self-help skills and interpersonal relationships helping the patient become more self-reliant,...

Multiproblem Milieu

Problems in the family climate and parenting behaviour interact with more objective and demographic family risks. These are, for example, poverty, lower socio-economic class, early and single motherhood, parental divorce, alcoholism, and criminal record. Taken individually none of these factors explains much variance (Hawkins et al., 1998 Lipsey and Derzon, 1998). However, their accumulation and interaction with other risks constitutes a multi-problem milieu of high risk for delinquency (Rutter, Giller and Hagell, 1998). Such accumulations are found outside the family as well. For example, deprived, disintegrated and violent neighbourhoods represent a delinquency risk (Catalano et al., 1998 Gorman-Smith and Tolan, 1998). Such a milieu contains social models for delinquency, violence, truancy, drug use, and so forth. However, the influence of the wider social context must be seen in interaction with family and individual factors. Wikstrom and Loeber (2000), for example, found that a...


An estimated 50 of all couples living together in heterosexual relationships today are nonmarried cohabitants. Most of these relationships are fairly short-term arrangements that end in either marriage or separation, whereas others may last for years (Macklin, 1988). In some instances, the cohabiting couple decides to forego a traditional marriage ceremony and become common-law partners by declaring themselves to be married. They combine their assets, file joint tax returns, and can only dissolve their common-law marriage by divorce or death. In states that recognize common-law marriages, the spouses can collect insurance, social security benefits, and community property after a stipulated time has expired. However, fraudulent claims resulting from common-law marriages have led many states to outlaw them (Marriage, 1993).


People get married for many different reasons other than love and romance familial and peer expectations and pressures to improve their economic and social positions to raise a family to cope with feelings of loneliness, inadequacy, and insecurity. Some women still get married because they are pregnant, but out-of-wedlock births have become fairly common and less likely to produce personal, social, and economic handicaps than they once were. Although traditional marriage in which the husband is the dominant partner and decision maker and the wife is the principal housekeeper and child rearer, has been declining in popularity, it is still the most common type. Other marital arrangements include companionate, colleague, open, All marriages are obviously not successful or happy ventures. Unwillingness or inability to compromise, inflexibility, and a refusal to acknowledge one's own inadequacies and failures as well as those of one's spouse are characteristic of partners in unhappy...


Nothing lasts forever love dies, a spouse dies, and many marriages end in divorce. Marital discord occurs for a number of reasons, 11 of which are listed in Figure 6-5. Not all of these reasons necessarily lead to divorce, but they are now more likely to do so than in previous times. In the last century, marriages ended in death as often as in divorce, but divorce has become the principal cause of marital breakups in this century. Legal grounds for divorce in previous times adultery, alcoholism, brutality, desertion, and nonsupport are still acceptable reasons, but incompatibility is a more common reason, and no-fault divorces are also becoming fashionable. Unlike former times, when the marital roles of husband and wife were relatively fixed and men and As shown in Figure 6-6, divorce rates for both men and women are at a peak in the early forties. The average number of years of marriage before divorcing has been declining and is now slightly over 6 years. Approximately 40 of first...

Families and Friends

In addition to being smaller, the families of today are different in other ways from what they used to be. Social changes have been accompanied by higher educational levels, higher divorce rates, a greater number of single-parent families, more mothers employed outside the home, earlier and more extensive retirement of older family members, and more leisure time and entertainment. Such developments have affected the attitudes, values, behaviors, and expectations of all family members, and particularly the younger ones. This chapter considers many of these structural and dynamic changes in the population and how they have affected the activities and ambitions of individual members of families.

Child Rearing

Because a child competes for their attention and often dominates their lives, the parents' personal happiness and satisfaction with their marriage frequently suffers (Wallace & Gotlib, 1990). Mothers in particular complain that they are tied down by children and that children limit their ability to work outside the home and achieve financial stability (Jacoby, 1982 Roper Organization, 1985). In a study by Thompson and Walker (1990), one-third of the mothers who were interviewed reported that they derived no meaning or enjoyment from motherhood, and another one-third had mixed feelings about it. These negative responses should, however, not be interpreted as meaning that parenthood is without rewards. A child brings love, joy, and meaningful-ness to most mothers and fathers, and the process of bringing up a child can have a positive effect on the development of both the child and the parents. For example, Lowenthal, Thurnher, and Chiriboga (1975) found that the parents they interviewed...

African Americans

Poverty are higher, and incomes are lower than average. Affecting socioeconomic status is the fact that the percentage of blacks who graduate from high school is significantly lower than that for whites. Quality of life, as indicated by a greater rate of substandard housing, a larger percentage of single-parent families, a lower marriage rate, and a higher divorce rate, is poorer for blacks than for whites. Ladner (1971) attributes some of these problems to the long period of slavery and segregation to which blacks were subjected in the United States. Because black slaves were not permitted to marry, a family system that deemphasized legal marriage, tolerated premarital intercourse, and accepted illegitimate children developed. The contemporary African-American community, with its emphasis on the extended family, strong kinship bonds, and intrafamilial cooperation, also originated in the historical experiences of African-Americans in Africa and, subsequently, in America.

Hispanic Americans

Hispanics, consisting primarily of a mixture of white, black, and Native American racial origins, are the second largest (and predicted to soon become the largest) ethnic minority in the United States. Of Hispanic-Americans, approximately 64 are Mexican, 11 are Puerto Rican, 5 are Cuban, and 13 are of Central or South American origin. Hispanic-Americans have the highest birthrate and the lowest divorce rate of all ethnic groups, but their per capita income is substantially lower than average (see Figure 8-3). In general, the incomes of Cuban-Americans are higher than those of Mexican-Americans, and the incomes of Mexican-Americans are higher than those of Puerto Rican-Americans (Torres-Gil, 1996). The percentage of Hispanics who have graduated from high school is also substantially lower, the unemployment rate is higher, and a greater percentage live below the poverty line than non-Hispanic-Americans ((U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1995).


Therapy can help change beliefs that may be destabilizing the client's moods. Once preliminary gains have been made, family therapy may be extremely useful for establishing appropriate boundaries and working through past hurts. A caveat here is that clinicians have noted that families in which sexual abuse has occurred are likely to be steeped in denial that will further invalidate the client, so caution must be used in establishing an appropriate agenda for such meetings. Although Millon does not specifically mention psychodynamic approaches in his section on making synergistic arrangements (Millon, 1999), it is likely that depth approaches would ideally be undertaken once the client has developed some distress tolerance skills and some capacity to challenge irrational beliefs. The strength of the psychodynamic approach is to encourage (or simply watch for) reen-actment of important patterns in the therapeutic relationship and work through them in the here-and-now. Although anxiety...

Family Interventions

Behavioural methods of change and problem solving are both common ingredients of family intervention. Family treatment of schizophrenia can decrease the relapse rate by almost 50 (Mari & Streiner, 1994 Pilling et al., 2002b). Studies show that there is an additional advantage of decreasing the family burden (Cuijpers, 1999). Family therapy has also been successfully applied in non-Western settings (Wang & Phillips, 1994 Xiong et al., 1994 Zhang etal., 1993).

Social Functioning

Overall, findings suggest that survivors of testicular cancer have good social functioning. While it is difficult to reach definitive conclusions (for the reasons previously discussed), when assessed, survivors generally report equal or more satisfaction with relationships after cancer treatment, compared to before treatment. For example, early efforts to describe marital satisfaction among survivors indicate that men are more likely to report improvement as opposed to deterioration in their relationship satisfaction.19 Gritz and colleagues36 also examined marital relationships among testicular cancer survivors by interviewing both the survivors and their wives. Results indicated that the majority of relationships were strengthened after the cancer experience. Fac tors identified as important for a couple's adjustment to cancer (good communication, spousal support, and marital satisfaction) all acted positively to facilitate relationship functioning. Other studies examining...

Sex And Aging

The sex life of the future may be characterized as being ''age independent'' and not tied by function to any particular period of chronological age. The enjoyment of family and intimacy may take on entirely new configurations. Romance until death will be the norm. Death, when it comes, may be a brief moment brought on by the wearing out of a machine.

Emotional Problems

Elliott (1999) in a thorough literature review concluded that there is some evidence for the efficacy of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural approaches to school refusal, with effective programmes entailing a high degree of family involvement. For example, Blagg & Yule (1984) found that behavioural family therapy was more effective than a hospital-based multimodal inpatient programme and a home tuition and psychotherapy programme for the treatment of school phobia. Behavioural family therapy included detailed clarification of the child's problem discussion of the principal concerns of the child, parents and teacher development of contingency plans to ensure maintenance of gains once the child returned to school a rapid return to school plan and follow-up appointments with parents and teachers until the child had been attending school without problems for at least 6 weeks. A year after treatment, 93 of children who received family-based behaviour Barrett, Dadds & Rappee (1996) found...

Closing Comments

Functional Family Therapy. Monterey, CA Brooks Cole. Chamberlain, P. (1994). Family Connections A Treatment Foster Care Model for Adolescents with Delinquency. Eugene, OR Castalia. Dishion, T. & Kavanagh, K. (1989) The Adolescents Transition Programme (manuals and accompanying video vignettes). Eugene, OR Independent Video Services. Henggeler, S. & Borduin, C. (1990). Family Therapy and Beyond A Multisystemic Approach to Treating the Behaviour Problems of Children and Adolescents. Pacific Grove, CA Brooks Cole. Szapocznik, J. & Kurtines, W. (1989). Breakthroughs In Family Therapy With Drug Abusing Problem Youth. New York Springer.

Varieties of Love

Companionate love consists of a strong but tranquil feeling of affection between two people. Companionate love partners depend on and trust each other, and they enjoy spending a lot of time together. Their feelings for each other are less intense but more stable than those of passionate lovers and are based on mutual self-disclosure and understanding. As companionate love grows, the partners reveal more and more about themselves. Companionate love is obviously different from passionate love, but the two states are not mutually exclusive. Romance and passion remain an important part of many enduring relationships (Murstein, 1985 Skolnick, 1981 Traupmann, Eckels, & Hatfield, 1982). fades, the relationship usually fails. Commitment grows gradually at first, more rapidly as the relationship progresses, and then either levels off (in long-term relationships) or declines (in failed relationships).

Matrimonial Disputes

For divorce, as we have fully recognised, is not a single circumscribed event, but a multistage process of radically changing family relationships. This process begins in the failing marriage, sometimes many years prior to the marital breakdown, may include one or more separations within the marriage, and extend over years following the decisive separation and the legal divorce. Rodgers and Pryor (1998) estimate that 19 of children born to married couples will experience parental divorce by the age of 10 and 28 by age 16. Haskey (1993,1994) states that in the early 1990s in England and Wales 160 000 families with children under 16 went through the experience of parental divorce. Of these children one in three was under 5, and a further 7000 were between 5 and 10 years. Dunn, Deater-Deckard, Pickering, O'Connor, Golding and Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC) Team (1998) have looked at a community sample to examine the implications for children. The risk factors...

Divorce Prevention Rescue Mission

Divorce Prevention Rescue Mission

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