The Monogamy Method
Monogamous social structures among mammals, which is estimated at 3-5 (Kleiman, 1977). Those rare cases of monogamous social structure among mammals appear to reflect harsher environmental conditions where pair bonding and paternal care increase reproductive fitness (Emlen and Oring, 1977). Therefore, for a species to be monogamous, something in the neurobiology of social behavior has to change dramatically. Monogamy, even though rare, has emerged multiple times across diverse mammalian taxa. The repeated appearance of monogamous social structure in distantly related taxa and the diversity of social structure among closely related species suggest that these dramatic changes in underlying neurobiology must happen rapidly, independently, and perhaps reversibly.
Kiwis are shy, night birds with a keen sense of smell. They are monogamous, meaning they mate with only one partner. They pair up for at least two or three breeding seasons and sometimes for life. The female usually digs a nest in the ground where she lays one or two large eggs, weighing about 1 pound (0.45 kilograms) each.
Behavior and reproduction Brown kiwis are nocturnal, meaning they are most active at night. During the day, they sleep in dens or burrows. They are monogamous, meaning they mate with only one partner during one or more breeding seasons. They live in pairs and are territorial, meaning they are protective of an area they consider home and claim exclusively for themselves. A brown kiwi pair's territory ranges from 12 to 106 acres (5 to 43 hectares).
Breeds primarily during monsoon season. Nest is deep cup of plant down and spider silk, lined with grass, and suspended from fork of a shrub or tree. One to three eggs are incubated 13-14 days by female nestlings, fed by both parents, leave after 15-16 days, fed by parents additional two or more weeks.
Cranes are monogamous birds and usually pair in their second or third year and start to breed in their fourth or fifth year. Pairs defend breeding territories that usually include many acres (hectares) of open wetlands or grasslands. A low platform nest is constructed of materials available in the wetland. A clutch of two eggs is typical. The incubation period of about one month is followed by a prefledging period of about 2-3 months.
There is a tendency towards monogamy, with one adult male and one adult female often occupying a joint territory, but a male may associate with more than one female. Births occur in November-January. Ovarian cycle length about 15 days. Typically gives birth to a single infant. Gestation period unknown.
Behavior and reproduction Eiders migrate in a straight line. They are seasonally monogamous, and the male leaves the female midway through incubation. Females lay four to five eggs into holes in the ground that have little lining. Incubation lasts twenty-two to twenty-four days. Ducklings are ready to breed at three years.
In order to reproduce, mammals have to find and recognize an appropriate mate (belonging to the same species, opposite sex, adult, in breeding mood, sexually appealing). Monogamous mammals undergo this search once in life solitary mammals have to seek mates each year. Subterranean mammals do not differ in this respect from their surface-dwelling counterparts. In 1987, two research teams reported, simultaneously and independently, the discovery of a new, previously unconsidered, mode of communication in blind molerats vibrational (seismic) signaling. The animals can put themselves into efficient contact through vibrational signals produced by head drumming upon the ceiling of the tunnel. Communicative drumming by hind feet was reported for solitary African mole-rats (Georychus and Bathyergus). This behavior, however, could not be found in another solitary African mole-rat, the silvery mole-rat (Heliophobius). It can be speculated that seismic signaling evolved in those solitary species...
Sexual dichromatism is uncommon in piciforms. Most often, males and females look alike, probably because birds that maintain a year-round monogamous pair bond do not require elaborate courtship displays. In woodpeckers, though males and females often have different plumages, the differences between the sexes tend to be subtle, involving the color of nape patches
Across mammal species generally, there is a fairly consistent relationship between the average litter size and the typical number of teats possessed by the mother. As a rule, it can be said that there is one pair of teats for each offspring in the typical litter. However, suckling of the offspring is just one aspect of parental care in mammals. Maternal care, which can include nest building, grooming of the offspring, and infant carriage, is found in all mammals. Paternal care is relatively rare and is usually restricted to grooming and or carriage. Predictably, paternal care in mammals is usually restricted to monogamous species in which there is a relatively high level of certainty of paternity.
Behavior and reproduction Black rails are territorial during the breeding season. Some populations migrate while others remain in the same place throughout the year. Most black rails are monogamous, although in rare instances a male may breed with multiple females (polygamy). In the United States black rails breed in the summer. In other parts of its range breeding occurs during the rainy season. Black rails nest in low vegetation, where they build a bowl-shaped nest out of grass. The nest is covered with a woven canopy. Females lay anywhere from two to thirteen eggs at a time. Eggs hatch after seventeen to twenty days.
Nests are usually solitary. Breeds year-round, chiefly following rains in Africa. Generally lays four eggs in shallow cup nest, concealed in marshy areas. Incubation, by male, 15-21 days, but fledging period unknown. Chicks precocial and leave the nest a short time after hatching usually cared for by male alone.
Equally important as the origin of limerence is the end of it. There are at least three circumstances that efficiently can reduce or eliminate the state. One is the loss of hope of reciprocation by the limerence object. When success seems impossible, the state disappears. Another circumstance leading to a reduction of the intensity of limerence is that the limerence object enters into a committed and monogamous relationship with the limerent person. The effect is reinforced if the limerent person gets convinced that the reciprocation will be sustained. A third condition ending or reducing limerence toward a particular individual is the replacement of this individual as limerence object with another. This process appears to be facilitated if one or both of the preceding conditions are satisfied.
Behavior and reproduction When disturbed, African snipes make a harsh calling noise and escape using a characteristic zigzag flight. Male African snipes attract females by making a drumming noise with their tail feathers. African snipes are monogamous, with a single male mating with a single female. Breeding occurs during or after the rainy season. The female lays two to three eggs at a time, generally in a hidden grassy area on moist or wet ground.
Monogamous known to breed from January through April in North America and March through June in Cuba, but few data are available. Nest cavity is in a large dead tree or in a live tree with extensive heartrot. Recorded nests have been 24-50 ft (7.3-15.2 m) up cavity entrance typically taller than wide, but shape varies. Clutch 2-4 eggs incubation by both parents incubation period and age at fledging not known young may remain with parents until next breeding season.
To address the third question, physiological correlates of learning are known for at least several learning phenomena brain areas responsible for spatial learning are larger in males of those vole species whose spatial learning is better than females, but not in those without such a sex difference. The olfactory bulb in the brain of a young ferret during the critical period of olfactory food imprinting is larger than before or after this time. We also know that thyroxine, the hormone of the thyroid gland, is responsible for neurological changes during food imprinting in this species, and that oxytocin, a pituitary hormone, is necessary in the brain of monogamous animals to learn who their specific partner is during pair formation. Several areas in the limbic system of the brain, particularly the hippocampus, have been identified as being responsible for exploratory behavior and learning.
It is clear that oxytocin plays a role in maternal-infant interactions, and that it also plays a role in adult social interactions in a manner independent of estrogen priming, at least in monogamous prairie voles. Even though the presence of a mother-infant interaction is a conserved feature of mammals, female bonding with other conspecifics is not universal. Diversity in social behavior among closely related species can be utilized to investigate the neural and genetic mechanisms that contribute to social bonding. Specifically, microtine rodents (voles), as a genus, display high levels of diversity in social behavior (Getz et al., 1981 Jannett, 1982 Shapiro and Dewsbury, 1990 Thomas and Birney, 1979). For example, while the prairie vole is socially monogamous with males contributing to care of the young, the closely related montane vole (M. montanus) lives in isolation (Jannett, 1982). In field studies, prairie vole males and females share nest sites and can be captured together...
Because the ventral pallidum is a key component of ventral forebrain reward circuitry, and because dopamine is a key neurotransmitter of this circuitry, the role of dopamine in partner preference formation was assessed. Pharmacological manipulation of dopamine in this circuitry modulates partner preference in monogamous prairie voles (Aragona et al., 2003 Gingrich et al., 2000 Wang et al., 1999). Further, in the V1aR viral vector-treated meadow vole, pharmacological blockade of D2 dopamine receptors with eticlopride eliminated the V1aR vector-induced partner preferences. Therefore, similar to the effect of endogenous V1aR in monogamous prairie voles, these exogenous V1aRs in the meadow vole appear to modulate highly conserved ventral forebrain reward circuits (Lim et al., 2004).
The coding regions between montane vole and prairie vole avprla share 99 identity. There are four amino acid changes out of 420 between these two sister species at this locus, but these differences do not appear to affect quantitative receptor-ligand interaction or affect qualitative second messenger coupling (Insel et al., 1994). Further, there is a second copy of avprla in the prairie vole which contains a truncating mutation, the effects of which have not been explored (Young et al., 1999). Considering that the V1aR of each species binds vasopressin equally, but that the two species show differences in the pattern of receptors in the brain, perhaps differences in gene regulatory mechanisms at the full-length avprla locus may explain these findings. Sequence comparisons in the 5' region between these two species also show high levels of identity, with the striking exception of a highly expanded repetitive region in the 5' regulatory region ( 500 base pairs upstream of the...
Two to three eggs laid from December to January. Incubation lasts 27-33 days. Chicks are semi-precocial and nidiculous, fledging 55-60 days after hatching. Breeding occurs in association with seabird colonies, with the exception of some birds of Kerguelen Islands. These birds tend to produce smaller clutches and fledge fewer young annually.
Monogamous, but extra-pair copulations probably common, judging by frequency of cloaca-pecking. Female builds nest using spider webs to hold together grasses, bark twigs, rags, feathers, wool, and other debris into oval shape. Nest lined with feathers and wool, decorated with large leaves, lichen, and even cloth, and either placed in bush or suspended. Two heavily marked whitish eggs are laid at any time of year and incubated by female only for two weeks. Nestlings cared for by both parents for two weeks. Fledglings return to nest to roost for first few nights. May be triple-brooded. Parasitized by Klaas's cuckoo.
Common white-tooth shrew mothers and young have been observed in caravan, a behavior where a young shrew offspring of six days or older grabs onto the back of its mother, and other young shrews from the litter form a line of shrews by latching onto each other. May form monogamous pairs for breeding.
Relatively little longitudinal research has been conducted on gay and lesbian relationships (Kimmel & Sang, 1995 Kurdek, 1991a, 1991b, 1995a, 1995b), but some facts are available. For example, informal marriages between homosexuals tend to be less stable than legal marriages between heterosexuals. Lesbians are more monogamous than gays, more likely to confide Bell and Weinberg (1978) differentiate between close-coupled, or enduring monogamous relationships, and open-coupled relationships in which two homosexuals live together but have other lovers as well. Close-coupled, or exclusive, relationships are generally happier than open-coupled ones and are more common among older than younger gays. Many of these partnerships are satisfying and enduring (Butler & Lewis, 1993). The fear of AIDS has also influenced the durability of homosexual relationships in recent years, resulting in a greater frequency of gay marriages that are close-coupled. Relationships between lesbian couples can also...
They are monogamous birds that breed in the summer. The breeding pair will defend their nesting territory. Dollarbirds use loud calling and aerobatics, spectacular flying stunts, in courtship rituals. Females lay three or four eggs, which are laid in high tree hollows, sometimes in woodpecker holes. Nests are often used several years in a row. The incubation period is twenty-two to twenty-three days. Both parents feed the chicks. Parents and chicks leave for wintering areas when chicks are able to fly.
The nest is placed on or near the ground in areas where there are small trees interspersed with low vegetation. Nesting occurs from late May through early July. Three to seven (usually four) eggs are incubated for 11-13 days, and young fledge after 8-9 days. Both parents feed the young.
Behavior and reproduction Ivory-billed woodpeckers have a territory of about 6 square miles (15.5 square kilometers). They are often seen in family groups. Their call is a sad-sounding single-or double-note tooting one such sound is a clarinetlike yank-yank-yank. The birds are monogamous. They breed from January through April in North America and March through June in Cuba. They build nest cavities in large dead trees or in live trees with fungus. Nests are usually built 24 to 50 feet (7.3 to 15.2 meters) off the ground with a cavity often 2 feet (6 meters) in depth. Females lay two to four eggs. The incubation and fledgling periods are not known, but both parents incubate and take care of young.
Forms monogamous pairs in which both parents care for the young. Females lay clutches of about 100 eggs, which hatch in roughly 60 hours, on branches or sturdy leaves. Within 4-5 days, fry become mobile and begin feeding on mucous secreted from flanks of the parents, showing preference for the male. In captivity, this mode of feeding can last as long as 8 weeks, although other foods supplement the habit.
Ejaculation in males, and formation of long-term pair bonds in those species when monogamy is typical (for reviews, see Carter, 1998 Insel and Young, 2001). During and after pregnancy, oxytocin functions to advance labor and uterine contractions and is involved in initiation of most maternal behaviors including breast feeding, nest building, licking, and warm contact with offspring. Oxytocin is involved in many basic non-reproductive social behaviors as well, including the simple act of socially recognizing a familiar individual (Young, 2002). Oxytocin knockout mice, lacking the gene to produce oxytocin, are less able to recognize a formerly familiar con-specific despite having no deficits in underlying learning or sensory functions. This lack of social recognition disappears if oxytocin is administered to the animal's medial amygdala, while the behavioral deficit can be mimicked in normal mice by administering an oxytocin antagonist to the same region (Ferguson et al, 2000, 2001).
Nests are placed in marshes, but often in vegetation at the edge of marshes they also nest in wet roadside ditches. Females build the nest that often is placed in the center of a tuft of pampas grass. Clutch size is 4-5 eggs, which are laid late September-December. Information on incubation and fledging are not available. Often several helper adults will help feed the young in a nest the relationship of these adults to the young is not known.
Gestation, on average, lasts 112 days. Litter size varies, ranging from one to four offspring per year (usually one to two), normally born in grass-lined chamber within burrow. Well-developed young are born with eyes open and short soft quills covering body. Birth weight is around 12 oz (340 g). Nursing lasts about 3.5 months. Usually monogamous, with both parents found in burrow with offspring throughout year.
Behavior and reproduction Remaining sedentary within well-defined territories for their entire adult lives, rufous scrub-birds dislike disturbance and will run mouse-like into thick foliage at the slightest threat. The species is alert and forages with enthusiasm, but is shy and evasive in general. The female rufous is even more elusive. Because of their underdeveloped wings, rufous scrub-birds run when threatened, instead of flying. During breeding season in September to November (Australia's spring), males use their elevated and fanned tails, lowered wings, and loud, melodious song to woo their partners. They can mimic other birdcalls well, but also use a species-specific chip sound. Rufous scrub-birds are typically monogamous (muh-NAH-guh-mus). Females occupy small areas on the outside of their mates' territories. The birds prefer to have widely spaced territories, with males marking and occupying about 2.5 acres (1 hectare) each, ideally. Females take sole responsibility for their...
Builds a bulb-shaped nest of clay beneath a sheltering projection on a cliff. They may also nest beneath overhanging eaves of a building, within the structure of a bridge, or on protected places on a dam. A social species that nests in colonies of various size. The clutch size is usually three to four eggs. The eggs are incubated by the female, but both parents feed the young.
Behavior and reproduction This solitary and secretive pipit species is known for flying high into the air when startled. They are also noted for their beautiful, arcing song-flight during mating season in April and May. Mating pairs are monogamous, and build a cup-shaped nest of grass and stems on the ground where tall grass can fall over the structure. The female lays four to seven eggs, and fledglings leave the nest in ten to eleven days.
The female chooses the breeding territory and the male follows and defends the female from other males. Breeding pairs are monogamous and loosely colonial. The female builds a cup-shaped nest of grass, rootlets, lichen, and moss, lined with fine grass, plant down, and feathers. The nest is sited in clefts of rock and cliffs, or sometimes in a cave or the eaves of a building. A clutch of four to five whitish eggs occasionally dotted with reddish brown are incubated by the female for 12-14 days. The altricial young are brooded by the female and fed by both sexes. Both males and females develop a gular pouch in the upper throat with an opening in the floor of the mouth so that they can carry larger amounts of seed back to their young. The young fledge in 16-22 days. Birds breeding in the mountains have one brood per year those living in lower tundra have as many as two.
The cactus wren is monogamous (muh-NAH-guh-mus). The breeding nest is an oval-like ball with a side entrance hole that is made of dry grasses and fibers lined with feathers. They are usually located right in spiny cacti and no effort is made to hide them. The female usually lays three to five eggs, though the number can range from two to seven, and they are light brown or pinkish in color with tiny speckles of reddish brown. The female alone incubates the eggs in a period that can last sixteen days. The newly hatched and young birds are fed by both sexes for nineteen to twenty-three days. The cactus wren might attempt up to six broods a year, though usually only three of those are successfully reared.
Members of this family are among the most common mammals in American tropical forests. Rainforests in Central and South America contain 31-49 species of phyllostomids tropical forests receiving less rainfall contain 20-30 species and dry regions contain two to three species. In addition to being one of the most taxonomically diverse families of bats, the Phyllostomidae is the most ecologically diverse group of bats. Food habits range from insects, flowers, and fruit to blood and other vertebrates. Sizes of social groups range from monogamous pairs to colonies containing several hundred thousand individuals.
Behavior and reproduction Ruby-cheeked sunbirds forage in tropical forests, in the canopy and at mid-level, usually in groups of five to ten. They also visit gardens for foraging. The call is a loud chirp. Breeding follows the usual pattern among sunbirds monogamous breeding pairs, purse-like nests, female incubating eggs, and both parents caring for the chicks.
Snow buntings are for the most part monogamous birds, but sometimes males or females will have two mates. Nesting occurs from late May through July. Nests are made with dried grassy plants, lichens, and grasses, and look like a large, thick-walled bulky cup. They are constructed on the ground, frequently in rock crevices. Sometimes they build nests in birdhouses and other artificial structures. Females lay between three to nine eggs, but usually from four to seven. The incubation period is from ten to fifteen days, and the fledgling period is from ten to seventeen days after hatching. Both in the breeding pair feed and take care of young.
Magpie-larks breed in monogamous pairs that tend to stay together for life (though Michelle Hall's study showed the occasional divorce when a better option presented itself ). Males and females share parental care, and may rear more than one clutch over the breeding season. Most juveniles leave their natal territory when they reach independence, though some remain over winter. After leaving their natal territories, juveniles join large semi-nomadic flocks until they form pairs and establish their own territories.
Behavior and reproduction Mating is at first monogamous, later changing to polygamous, meaning that the birds begin with one mate each and the male eventually finds other females to mate with. After the male has built one nest and attracted and mated with a female, he builds another nest and tries to entice another female to move in. One male may support up to five females in five nests.
Socially pair-bonded non-territorial monogamy with both sexes presumed to incubate and provision nestlings, as in other manucodes. Breeding during at least July through September, and in January. Nest is a shallow open cup suspended by its rim from a branch fork. Clutch is one or two eggs. In being monogamous, Manucodia provide an interesting contrast to the majority of polygynous family members for socio-ecological study.
Male constructs outer framework of deep bowl-shaped nest of grass and various fibers, in small trees, bamboo, dense grass, or thickets. Female assists in lining with moss, cobwebs, hair, etc. Thirteen-day incubation of 3-5 blue-green or white eggs shared by parents.
Behavior and reproduction Eclectus parrots are monogamous and are believed to breed year-round. However, they are thought to mate mostly between August and January. Birds are group-oriented, and there may be four nests in a tree. The parrots are cooperative breeders, parents are helped by other birds. The assistants are thought to be offspring or adult relatives of the expectant parents. The female has a clutch of two eggs that hatch in twenty-six days.
Preference formation in male prairie voles (Lim and Young, 2004). These functional studies demonstrate a role for V1aR in the ventral pallidum in the modulation of social behavior in a monogamous species, and suggest that V1aR in the ventral pallidum is an important difference between monogamous and nonmonogamous voles. Using viral vector gene transfer technology, it is possible to address whether V1aR levels in the ventral pallidum significantly contribute to social behavior. An adeno-associated viral vector expressing the prairie vole V1aR was placed in the ventral pallidum of nonmonogamous meadow voles (M. pennsyl-vanicus) (Lim et al., 2004). The viral vector increased levels of V1aR in the ventral pallidum and induced partner preference formation in male meadow voles. Parental care, another monogamy-related social behavior, was not influenced by this treatment, indicating that V1aR in ventral pallidum modulates the partner preference aspect of monogamy, but not other important...
Greater painted snipes are either polyandrous, with each female mating with multiple males, or monogamous, with each female mating with only one male. The greater painted snipe may breed at any time during the year, but most frequently breeds after rainfalls. Females usually lay four eggs at a time in a shallow grass bowl-shaped nest. Nests are usually hidden in moist vegetation. Males are responsible for incubating, or sitting on, the eggs. Chicks hatch after fifteen to twenty-one days. Greater painted snipe chicks are precocial, and are usually able to leave the nest fairly quickly after hatching. Chicks are cared for exclusively by the male.
The breeding season of the monogamous (muh-NAH-guh-mus), having only one mate, birds is in the spring-summer, September to February. Rufous horneros will defend their breeding territory, where they construct a large nest made up of thousands of small clumps of moist mud, clay, some dung, and straw carried to a nest site with their bills. The inside of the nest is lined with bits of grasses and stems. The spherical, oven-shaped structure is usually placed on a tree stump, fencepost, telephone pole, or rooftop but can also be placed on older nests, bare ground, or rock. The entrance is usually placed on the side of the nest. Two to five eggs are laid from September to December. The incubation period is fourteen to eighteen days. Both males and females incubate eggs and take care of the nestlings. The nestling period is twenty-three to twenty-six days.
A variety of social systems are known in voles and lemmings. One common system that occurs in many species is comprised of mutually exclusive female territories and larger overlapping male territories that vary in location and size in response to receptive females. However, in the field vole (Mi-crotus agrestis) it is the males whose territories are strongly defended and exclusive, while the females have widely overlapping home ranges. Some species of meadow vole are believed to be highly monogamous, and the social systems and the degree of territoriality or tolerance almost certainly vary with density in many of the cyclic species.
Savanna sparrows are usually monogamous, but males are sometimes bigamists (having two mates). Some marsh-dwelling species are polygynous. Nests are woven into the shape of a cup made with grasses and other vegetation. Nests are made on the ground or in a slight depression that is partly covered by grasses or other vegetation. From February to August, females lay one to two clutches of two to six eggs. The incubation period is ten to thirteen days and the
Duets are thought to be involved in pair-bond maintenance, synchronization of sexual activity, or cooperative territorial defense, and are generally associated with monogamous species that maintain territories year-round. A Prima subflava female occasionally adds her own complementary rattle to the notes of a singing male, creating a duet. The female Prima bairdii is known to duet during territory advertisement. A few Cisticola species (C. hunteri, C. chubbi, C. nigriloris) also engage in duetting. Apalis flavida duets, but not for territory defense. Other genera with species that duet include Bathmocercus, Bradypterus, Drymocichla, Schistolais, and Spiloptila. Almost all Old World warblers are territorial. Typically, the male defends a territory with song, display, and sometimes chasing and fighting. The majority of antagonistic behavior in migratory species occurs in the early spring during initial territory settlement and mate acquisition. In several monogamous species the female...
During courtship, the male leads the female to potential nest sites. The nest, built by both sexes, is a neat cup of plant fibers often camouflaged and placed high on a branch or fork of a tree or shrub. Four or five eggs are incubated by both parents for 11-15 days. Female broods the nestlings, but later both sexes feed young. Fledging occurs after 10-15 days.
Nest is neat cup of plant material, decorated on outside with bark, paper, wool, etc., built by female in fork of shrub or tree. Four to five eggs incubated by female for 13-15 days young, cared for by both parents, leave nest after 12-16 days, independent after 1-2 weeks.
(2002b) developed a Safer Sex Algorithm consisting of decision rules for defining safe and unsafe sex as well as relationship variables and partner characteristics (i.e., length of relationship, partner type, HIV status, alcohol or drug use, and monogamy of individual and partner). Moderate correlations were found between measures taken 3 months apart (r 0.55 for the number of unsafe sexual events and r 0.52 for the number of unprotected anal and or vaginal sex events).
Socially monogamous and sexually promiscuous, with males wandering into adjacent territories, often carrying yellow flower petals to attract females males may father less than half of the offspring produced in their territory. Clutch is three to four red-spotted, white eggs. Female incubates for two weeks fledging in 10-14 days.
Monogamous breeds October-January 2-4 white eggs laid in tree hollow incubation by female probably 20 days chicks fed by both parents, fledging at 30 days. Breeding by courols also takes place during summer monsoon season, when a clutch of up to four white eggs is laid in a hollow limb or tree hole, and incubation by the female lasts at least 20 days. Newly hatched chicks are down covered.
Typically occurs as monogamous pairs or family groups of pairs with one or two young on territories of 10-50 acres (4-20 ha). Breeding pairs are likely stable over long periods. One young born after a gestation period estimated at five or six months. Weaning thought to occur at three to four months. Dry brush and scrub habitats where thickets provide food and cover. Territorial, occurs in monogamous pairsor singly.
Males and females search for nesting ground together. The female lays eight to twelve eggs in her ground nest. Incubation lasts twenty-seven to twenty-eight days, during which the male leaves the female to join a new flock. Ducklings fly between the age of fifty and sixty days and are ready to breed at one year. Mallards are seasonally monogamous, have just one mate per season, and have been known to breed with other species.
Pairs form in the fall and are seasonally monogamous. The female lays anywhere from six to fifteen eggs in nests that are actually holes in tree trunks or former woodpecker holes. Incubation lasts twenty-eight to thirty-seven days, and the male leaves just a few days before ducklings hatch. Young leave the nest within two days and are ready to mate at one year. Snapping turtles are the primary predators of eggs and ducklings.
Nocturnal, arboreal, lacks a gliding membrane but is capable of quite extensive leaps. Lives in family groups of up to eight animals. Mating system monogamous, females force female offspring to disperse. Territories of 2.4-2.9 ac (1-2 ha) size. No scent glands. One to two young, births peak in May-June and October-November, but occur in all months except January-February. Monogamous.
The willow ptarmigan is monogamous (muh-NAH-guh-mus having just one mate) and each pair has its own territory. Nesting starts anywhere from April to June, depending on the latitude. The female lays eight to eleven eggs and incubates them for twenty-two days. Males keep newly hatched chicks warm. Chicks fly at the age of ten to twelve days. Families stay together until the fall.
The Charadriiformes display considerable variation in mating and social habits. Most species are monogamous and in many cases maintain pair bonds in successive breeding seasons. Adherence to a monogamous system, particularly in the Alcae and Lari, is possibly related to the requirements of nest defense and bi-parental care of young. In contrast, polyan-drous and polygynous behavior occurs in a number of the shorebirds (Charadrii). Examples include the phalaropes (genus Phalaropus family Scolopacidae), jacanas (family Ja-canidae), and some sandpipers (family Scolopacidae). Another fascinating aspect of Charadriiform social systems is the gregarious nature of many species during various phases of the annual cycle. This is most pronounced in the colonial nest
Mammals exhibit a wide variety of mating systems, which can be basically divided into promiscuous, monogamous, polygynous, and multi-male. In mammals that live in gregarious social groups, the mating system is commonly (but not always) reflected by the composition of those groups, whereas in dispersed mammals patterns of mating must be determined from observations of interactions between separately ranging, solitary individuals. In all cases, however, it must be remembered that social systems and mating systems do not necessarily coincide. Even with mammals that are seemingly monogamous, genetic tests of paternity are quite likely to produce surprises just as they have already done for several bird species. Monogamy, which is the predominant pattern of social organization and widely assumed to be the dominant mating system among birds, is relatively rare among mammals. It is somewhat more common in carnivores and primates than in other mammals, but even in those groups it is found in...
Male and female mammals obviously differ in various features that are directly linked to reproduction, as is the case with the sex organs of both sexes and the mammary glands of females (primary sexual characteristics). However, males and females can also differ in a variety of features that are not directly associated with reproduction (secondary sexual characteristics). Such secondary differences between males and females, like the human facial beard, are collectively labeled sexual dimorphism. The simplest form of sexual dimorphism distinguishing male and female mammals involves overall adult body size. As a general rule in mammals, males tend to be bigger than females, but there are some cases in which females are bigger than males (reverse sexual dimorphism). Differences in body size between the sexes are often relatively mild, as is the case in humans, where adult males are about 20 heavier than females but there are also some striking contrasts. In the most extreme case of...
Buff-spotted flufftails are monogamous, and nests are built on the ground. Nests are dome-shaped and built from dead leaves or grass. The female lays three to five eggs at a time. Eggs hatch after fifteen to sixteen days, and the young are independent after nineteen to twenty-one days.
Primates are recognized by many as the most advanced mammals, possibly because of advanced cognitive skills and a larger brain relative to body size. Many primates including humans do not have an estrous cycle, but instead a menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle typically leads to more frequent ovulation (every 28 days on average in humans) and considerable bleeding associated with breakdown of the endometrial lining in the uterus (menstruations). Moreover, females of advanced primate species including humans do not show clear sign of ovulation and in many females, ovulation fits into a process called the menstrual cycle. In this cycle, the uterus is prepared prior to ovulation, the egg or eggs are released several days later, and if fertilization does not occur, the lining of the uterus degenerates and is shed during a period called the menstruations. The combination of regular but hidden ovulation in females probably allow primates to evolve promiscuous mating systems because males...
Behavior and reproduction Beach thick-knees fly away when disturbed, usually over the water. Beach thick-knees are monogamous. The nest is usually a shallow depression that is sometimes surrounded by a ring of leaves. The female lays only one egg at a time. The egg hatches after thirty days. The chick is able to fly after twelve weeks, but may stay with its parents for as long as a year.
Behavior and reproduction Killdeer get their name from their call, which sounds like killdee killdee. Killdeer are often found in small or medium-sized flocks that may include other species of shorebirds. Some populations are migratory while others remain in the same place year-round. Pairs defend territories from other members of the species during the breeding season, and sometimes during the winter as well. Killdeer are monogamous, with a single male breeding with a single female. Often, individuals keep the same mate from one year to the next. Nests are either scraped on the ground or built on gravel-covered
Behavior and reproduction Northern lapwings have been found in flocks of as many as 5,000 individuals, although flocks of about 100 are more common. Northern lapwings are usually monogamous, but there is some polygyny. Females usually lay four eggs at a time. These hatch after twenty-four to thirty-four days. Both parents help
Behavior and reproduction Long-billed curlews are monogamous, with a single male breeding with a single female. Pairs are territorial, defending their nesting area from other pairs. Females lay three to five eggs at a time, generally in short grass. Eggs hatch after twenty-seven or twenty-eight days.
Behavior and reproduction Black-faced sheathbills do not migrate, but remain in one place throughout the year. Pairs defend their territories from other sheathbills all year round. Black-faced sheathbills are most often associated with colonies of king penguins. Black-faced sheathbills are monogamous, with a single male breeding with a single female. The female lays two to three eggs in December or January, with breeding at the same time as that of the seabirds among which they live. Chicks hatch after twenty-seven to thirty-three days.
Monogamous often nests in near treeless areas, excavating cavities in utility poles, occasionally dirt banks sometimes uses nest boxes. Not a strong excavator and often uses available cavities. Nesting occurs February-August (earlier in warmer latitudes, later in colder areas). Clutch size 3-12 eggs, 4-9 common incubation 11-12 days by both parents young fledge at 25-28 days. Young are fed by regurgitation. Two broods possible. Often suffers from competition for cavities with the introduced European starling (Sturnus vulgaris).
Breeds from August to February, with nesting peaking in October and November in Zimbabwe and Transvaal. Nests are often in open areas and often in cavities excavated by other species. Clutch size 2-5 eggs incubation lasts 15-18 days parental duties carried out by both parents. Nest cavities may be reused.
Most mammalian species are nonmonogamous the female alone cares for the young and males and females do not share nest sites. Within the genus Microtus, there exists ample diversity in social structure for neuroethological and neurobi-ological investigation. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous both the males and females contribute to care of the young within a shared nest site as a breeding pair through multiple breeding seasons. Closely related species such as the montane (M. montanus) and meadow (M. pennsylvanicus) voles do not typically show these behaviors. Over a decade of research has demonstrated that species differences in neuropeptide systems play significant roles in the behavioral divergence of these species. In particular, species differences in regional gene expression patterns of neuropeptide receptors in the brain mediate some of the behavioral traits associated with the divergence in social structure. Differences in gene expression patterns of a...
Oxytocin and vasopressin, acting within the brain, appear to play key roles in mammalian sociobehavioral strategies. In the early 1990s, drawing on decades of work on the role of oxytocin in maternal-infant interactions (Kendrick et al., 1987 Pedersen and Prange, 1979), Carter et al. (1992) postulated that oxytocin may play a role in the neurobiology of adult bonding. This hypothesis was tested in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), which is a socially monogamous rodent species (Getz et al., 1981 Thomas and Birney, 1979). Prior sexual or cohousing experience increased side-by-side resting affiliative behavior in adult prairie voles (Carter et al., 1988). Furthermore, female prairie voles developed a social preference for a male cage-mate after the pair has been housed together for 24 h. The formation of such a partner preference was rapidly facilitated if the pair mated during the cohousing period (Williams et al., 1992b). Apparently, these behavioral manipulations (i.e.,...
Seasonally monogamous in the United States. Non-migratory individuals commonly mate for life. Migrants have been observed with the same mate on breeding territories in consecutive years. Parental responsibilities are shared by both sexes. Lays four eggs in a scrape on the ground, preferring closely mowed pasture and graveled areas. Flat, gravel-covered rooftops are popular nesting sites. Both sexes participate in scrape formation. The bird crouches in the selected area and digs with the feet, pushing dirt to the rear and using the breast to form the scrape. Pair members take turns scraping. The displaced bird moves away from the scrape, tossing loose materials over the shoulder as it moves away. These loose materials eventually form a simple lining for the scrape. Incubation requires about 25 days, and hatching is usually fairly synchronous. Nests are rarely left unattended, especially when temperatures are high. Belly soaking (wetting of the breast feathers at a nearby pond or...
Flexible mating system (monogamy, polyandry, polygyny). In groups with more than one adult male, mate guarding occurs during the receptive phase of the breeding female. Gestation length is 125-130 days and twins are the rule. Females give birth usually once per year, and breeding and births are seasonal. Adult males participate in infant carrying.
Behavior and partner preference behavior even with short-duration cohabitation without mating (Winslow et al., 1993). These effects of vasopressin appear to act through the vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR), as central injection of V1aR antagonist, but not an oxytocin receptor antagonist, abolished both mating-induced aggression toward novel intruders and formation of partner preferences after 24 h of cohabitation with mating (Winslow et al., 1993), which are hallmark behaviors of monogamous social structure. Apparently, the antagonist had to be present during the initial mating cohabitation bout, since the already high levels of territorial aggression of established breeder males were unaffected by antagonist treatment. In contrast to the effects of exogenous administration of vasopressin on social behavior in prairie voles, central administration of vaso-pressin into the lateral ventricles of nonmonogamous montane voles had no effect on affiliative behavior (Young et al., 1999)....
Flexible mating system (monogamy, polyandry). Groups include 1-2 breeding females, each of which gives birth to a single infant. Estrus cycle duration is 23-24 days, gestation length is 147-157 days. Breeding is perhaps seasonal, with possibly two births per year. Mothers are the principal carriers of infants.
Almost all pittas breed seasonally, with breeding timed to coincide with the onset of the rainy season. An exception to this pattern is the superb pitta (Pitta superba), which apparently nests throughout the year on the island of Manus. In most species there are relatively few unique displays prior to copulation, and most pittas probably are monogamous. However, the African pitta performs a unique display prior to the breeding season. During display bouts, this species repeatedly jumps about 10 in (25 cm) into the air, parachuting back to the perch with several shallow wing-beats. During this display the red belly is prominently displayed and the birds often give a prrt-wheet vocalization.
There are other neuropeptide receptor genes where such a mechanism currently exists. Variation in other gene loci is highly probable, as there are many proteins in the elaborate neural circuitry supporting complex social behavior. It is unlikely that microsatellite variation in just a single gene, like the avprla, acts as a genetic switch, turning monogamy on and off as environmental niches demand. Indeed, phylogenetic evidence from many vole species indicate that the mere presence or absence of a microsatellite in the avprla cannot, in fact, explain the variation in social structure in vole species outside of North America (Fink et al., 2006). However, it is important to clarify that more subtle variation in the microsatellite length and or sequence, in species that have a microsatellite, can modulate V1aR expression in a tuning knob fashion. The presence of a microsatellite confers the potential for length mutation, which can happen rapidly, repeatedly (i.e., independently), and...
Females give birth to a single offspring at the beginning of the rainy season. Males carry infants the majority of the time, beginning at birth. Infants are weaned at 4-5 months. Females become sexually mature at 24-36 months, males at 24-42 months. Both sexes leave the group at three years of age.
Breeds in monogamous pairs, once per year, and male and female share nest-building duties, although the female carries a larger burden. Nests are spherical and hang from a branch of a deciduous tree. Clutches include two to six eggs, which the female incubates for 15 to 17 days. Juveniles fledge at 19 to 21 days and are fed by both parents.
Monogamous breeders, in solitary pairs or in small colonies. Nests are built by both sexes, near the trunk on a horizontal limb or on a cross-arm of a human-made structure. Nest is cup-shaped. Clutches of three to seven eggs are incubated 18 to 19 days by the female and young are fed by both parents and fledge after 16 to 17 days.
Monogamous both sexes incubate the eggs and care for the young breeds April to June in Northern Hemisphere, September to December in Southern Hemisphere, and all year in Australia. Densely colonial in most places, may nest solitarily in Europe within colonies of other gulls and terns. Clutch is two to three eggs. Incubation period 26-28 days. Fledging period 35-45 days. Chicks form creches, and there is extended parental care beyond fledging. Most breed at three years of age.
Monogamy Monogamy refers to a suite of behaviors that involves at least some of the following (1) nest sharing by a male and a female, (2) shared efforts of taking care of the young, (3) separation-induced vocalizations in the neonate, and (4) mating-induced territorial aggression toward unfamiliar intruders. It is important to note that this definition of monogamy does not include sexual exclusivity. Many monogamous social structures contain ample evidence of extra-pair copulations, including prairie voles, which are a focus of this chapter.
Monogamous, and both sexes engage in territorial defense, incubation of the eggs, and chick care. Breeds from mid-March to May in Northern Hemisphere. Usually nests within colonies of other terns and small gulls but sometimes nests in large conspecific colonies (Texas). Sometimes performs distraction display but normally relies on the aggressive behavior and mobbing of terns to protect its eggs and chicks. Lays two to seven eggs (usually three or four). Incubation period 21-26 days. Fledging period 28-30 days.
Nest is cup-shaped and compact, often with hanging streamers, built by female in the fork of a deciduous tree. One clutch per year of two to four eggs, incubated by female for 12 to 15 days. Juveniles remain in the nest for 12 to 14 days, fed by both sexes.
Monogamous (muh-NAH-guh-mus) pairs, birds mated only with each other, usually dig nest burrows in earthen banks, but also use rotten tree trunks. They dig out tunnels that end in a nest chamber about 8 inches (20 centimeters) in diameter. Females usually lay two eggs, which are incubated for about twenty-two days.
They form monogamous (muh-NAH-guh-mus) pairs, having only one mate, and they strongly defend their nests. Their courtship displays involve deep ascents followed by spectacular twisting dives that show off their wing colors. Croaking and rattling calls (like ra-ra-ra-raa-raa-aaaaaa-aaaar ) accompany the display. They breed from May to June, with females laying two to six (usually four) eggs in an un-lined, usually pine or oak, tree hollow, crevice in rock faces, or hole in walls of buildings. The incubation period is between seventeen and nineteen days, performed totally by the females. Both parents feed chicks. The fledgling period, time while the young grow their flying feathers, is twenty-five to thirty days.
Chimpanzees and australopithecines and the earliest ape-men fossils, males were one-and-a-half times the size of females, in modern people the ratio is much less. The steady decline of that ratio in the fossil record is one of the most overlooked features of our prehistory. What it means is that the mating system of the species was changing. The promiscuity of the chimp, with its short sexual liaisons, and the harem polygamy of the gorilla, were being replaced with something much more monogamous a declining ratio of sexual dimorphism is unambiguous evidence for that. But in a more monogamous system, there would now be pressure on each sex to choose its mate carefully in polygamy, only the female is choosy. Long pairbonds shackled each ape-man to its mate for much of its reproductive life quality rather than quantity was suddenly important. For males it was suddenly vital to choose young mates, because young females had longer reproductive lives ahead of them. A preference for...
Mating occurs from late winter (in southern populations) to early summer and produces a single litter. May form monogamous pairs. In a dry nest made of leaves, grass, and other vegetation, the female gives birth to two to seven altricial young following a gestation of about 45 days. The young are independent at three to four weeks and become sexually mature at 10 months.
Most are monogamous, but individuals of either sex may have two mates. Nesting takes place from late May through July. The nest, which is a large thick-walled bulky cup of dried sedges, grasses, and lichens, is placed on the ground, often in a crevice in rocks. They lay three to nine (usually four to seven) eggs. Incubation lasts 10-15 days, and the young fledge after 10-17 days. Both parents feed the young.
Eggs are laid from May through July. The nest is placed on or close to the ground and is well concealed in vegetation. They lay three to six (usually four to five) eggs incubation lasts 12-14 days, and young fledge at 10-13 days of age. Both parents feed the young.
Monogamous, but extrapair fertilizations are common and bigamy occurs in some populations (probably where densities are high). The nesting season is geographically variable. The well-hidden nest is usually placed on the ground but may be placed in a bush or small tree. They lay two to six (usually five) eggs. Incubation lasts 12-15 (commonly 13) days, and the young fledge after 9-13 (usually 10-12) days. Both parents feed the young.
Mostly monogamous, but in some populations about 20 of the males are polygynous. The nest is placed on the ground in thick tangled grass or in a shrub or depression. They lay two to seven (usually four to five) eggs. Incubation takes 12-14 days, and young fledge in 9-13 days. The female does most of the feeding, but males with more than one mate tend to feed more than males in a monogamous pair.
The nest cup is low to mid-level in a bush. Commonly two, but occasionally three, eggs are laid during the time of year when their food is most abundant, which varies seasonally and geographically. The incubation period is about 12 days young fledge after 11-13 days.
Riflemen are monogamous birds, forming long-lasting pair bonds. Their breeding season is from August to January. Males do most of the construction of the nest. The typical nest is a rather complex structure in a tree crevice, sometimes with a dome-like roof and inside lined with spider webs and mosses. Females lay two to four white eggs. About ten days before and during the egg laying process, males will bring food to females up to nine times an hour. Both parents usually raise two broods, young birds that are born and raised together, each year. The incubation period, time that it takes to sit on eggs before they hatch, is nineteen to twenty-one days. The nestling period, time necessary to take care of young birds unable to leave nest, is twenty-three to twenty-five days, but can last up to sixty days. Eggs weigh about 20 percent of the female's weight, and are laid every other day. Males incubate during the day and females incubate at night. Hatchlings are born in an undeveloped...
Monogamous, mated pair being the basic social unit. Courtship display features squaring of shoulders and agitated sideways wagging of fanned tail to the accompaniment of chattering notes. Defends territory in immediate vicinity of nesting tree nest in tree hollow, sometimes in crevice in wall of building clutch of four or five eggs incubated by female for 19 days chicks fed by both parents fledging at 32 days.
In West Africa breeding is from December to April, and is from November to June in India and Sri Lanka. Preceding copulation, elaborate display from male features side-to-side swaying of upward stretching body, repeated raising of one foot, and arching of neck while dilating eye pupils, all to the accompaniment of low, twittering notes. Nest in tree hollow, often in old holes of woodpeckers, or in cavities in walls and under eaves of buildings clutch of three to four eggs incubated by female for 22 days young birds leave nest at approximately 30 days.
Breeding season varies geographically from November to April in West Africa to between July and December in Congo River basin and June-July in East Africa. Nest in tree hollow high above ground clutch of two or three, rarely four, eggs incubated by female incubation periods of 21 and 30 days recorded in captivity, and young birds left nest nearly 10 weeks after hatching.
Breeding recorded from July to December. In northern Brazil nests commonly in crevices in cliff-faces, but elsewhere in tree hollows, often in dead palm stumps clutch of two or rarely three eggs, but normally only one chick reared in captivity incubation by female lasted 28-30 days young bird fledged at approximately three months.
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