Feeding ecology and diet

All tarsiers eat animal food exclusively no field or captive studies have documented any plant food in their diet. Tarsiers locate their prey by sound or by sight, their closest com- A western tarsier (Tarsius bancanus) eats a cicada. (Photo by Frans Lanting Minden Pictures. Reproduced by permission.) A western tarsier (Tarsius bancanus) eats a cicada. (Photo by Frans Lanting Minden Pictures. Reproduced by permission.) petitors being insectivorous bats and small owls. They catch and relish all...

Smalltoothed sportive lemur

Lepilemur microdon Forbes, 1894, east of Betsileo, Madagascar. Spanish L mur juguet n de dientes Peque os. Small-toothed sportive lemurs have a head and body length of about 10.2 in (26.0 cm), with a tail length of about 10.6 in (27.0 cm) and weight of about 2.2 lb (1.0 kg). They possess binocular vision, a large cecum, and large digital pads on their hands and feet for clinging. The species is mostly red-brown in color with a dark mid-dorsal line and is yellowish-buff colored laterally and...

Behavior

The large number of species, wide habitat tolerance, diverse diets and well developed brains of carnivores have combined to lead to the evolution of a wide range of behaviors and social systems. Only the higher primates have more complex behavior patterns and social systems than the social carnivores. This flexibility in behavior within the order can be seen between species and, perhaps most interestingly, within a species as it adapts to different environmental demands. Many carnivores are...

Significance to humans

The most prominent use of non-human primates has been in biomedical research, where certain species (notably the rhesus monkey, the baboon, and the common marmoset) have become standard laboratory species. An emphasis on development of breeding programs has greatly reduced the impact of such usage on natural populations. Some primates notably macaques are agricultural pests, raiding various crops (e.g., plantations of fruit trees and even stocks of maniok soaking in water) and occasionally...

Evolution and systematics

Although this family has a small number of genera and species, it still has a good share of controversy when it comes to classification. For example, some systematists over the years have placed the giant panda in a subfamily of Ursidae, as it is in this chapter, or in its own family, called Ailuropodidae. The Malayan sun bear, sloth bear, and polar bear are often grouped under the Ursus genus, but sometimes fall under the genera Helarctos, Melursus, and Thalarctos, respectively. Subspecies of...

Common marmoset

Simia jacchus Linnaeus, 1758, Pernambuco, Brazil. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Ouistiti a toupet blanc German Weisspinselaffe Portuguese Sagui-do-nordeste. Average weight 11.3 oz (320 g) head and body length 7.3-9.8 in (18.5-25 cm) tail length 11.6-13.8 in (29.5-35 cm). They display prominent white ear tufts. Northeastern Brazil introduced in eastern and southeastern Brazil. Coastal forest, gallery forest, forest patches in open Caatinga and Cerrado bush land. Group size ranges between 3-15, with...

Species accounts

Mustela erminea Linnaeus, 1758, Europe and Asia. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Stoat, short-tailed weasel French Belette a queue courte, hermine German Wiesel, Hermelin Spanish Armi o, mostela. Body length 6-10 in (15-25 cm), tail 2-4 in (3-10 cm), weight 0.3-0.8 lb (125-350 g). Long, tubular-shaped body with short limbs. Pelage brown during summer, white during winter, always with a black-tipped tail. The ermine has the greatest distribution of all weasels. It occurs across Europe, Ireland, parts...

Golden snubnosed monkey

Rhinopithecus roxellana (Milne-Edwards 1870), Sichuan, China. Some authors include snub-nosed monkeys in the genus Pygathrix, rather than recognizing the separate genus Rhinopithecus. Three subspecies can be recognized for the golden snub-nosed monkey. English Sichuan golden snub-nosed monkey French Rhinopitheque dor German Goldener Stumpfnasenaffe. This is one of the largest leaf-monkey species, second only to the proboscis monkey. Fur grayish brown with distinctive golden strands dorsally and...

Mongooses and fossa

Cynictis Penicillata Attack

Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Suborder Feloidea Family Herpestidae Small to medium-sized carnivores with long bodies, short legs, and highly tapered snouts fur is often grizzled and brown or gray in color 7-31 in (18-80 cm) 7 oz-26.5 lb (200 g-12 kg) Savanna, forest, open woodland, and semi-desert Endangered 6 species Vulnerable 5 species Data Deficient 1 species Africa, Asia, Madagascar, and southern and eastern Mediterranean region Africa, Asia, Madagascar, and southern and eastern...

Reproductive biology

Female small cats may reach sexual maturity at less than one year old, big cats at around two years, but a female may not produce her first litter until she has established a home range, which might not be until age three or four. Gestation Bengal cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) female and cub. (Photo by Animals Animals Michael Dick. Reproduced by permission.) Bengal cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) female and cub. (Photo by Animals Animals Michael Dick. Reproduced by permission.) A bobcat...

Hooded seal

Cystophora cristata (Erxleben, 1777), south Greenland and Newfoundland. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Bladdernose seal. Males 8.3 ft (2.5 m) 660 lb (300 kg) Females 7.3 ft (2.2 m) 440 lb (200 kg). Males and females have similar pelage that is a gray background with black patches. Pups are born with a coat that is blue-gray above and creamy color below. It is not the natal coat as found in most other phocids. The real natal coat in this species is shed in utero. The name hooded seal is derived from...

Western tarsier

Tarsius bancanus Horsfield, 1821, eastern Sumatra, Borneo, and adjacent island. English Horsfield's tarsier French Tarsier occidental German Sundakoboldmaki. 12.6-14.6 in (32-37 cm) 3.8-4.8 oz (107-135 g) buff, sometimes sand-colored tail tuft short, but well developed. Biggest eyes in relation to head size in any mammal. Southeastern Sumatra and Borneo, and the islands of Bangka, Belitung, Karimata, and Serasan. Secondary and primary rainforest, shrubs, plantations. Tarsius pumilus Tarsius...

Raccoons and relatives

Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Procyonidae Medium-sized carnivores with dexterous digits and long tails, most with dark bands Body 1.0-2.5 ft (30-70 cm) tail 0.8-2.0 ft (20-70 cm) mass 2-40 lb (0.8-18 kg) Forests, farmland, and cities Conservation status Endangered 5 species and 1 subspecies Lower Risk Near Threatened 3 species Data Deficient 1 species South and Central America, North America, and Asia South and Central America, North America, and Asia Procyonids evolved in the tropical...

Steller sea lion

Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776), Commander and Bering Islands, Russia. English Northern sea lion French Lion de mer de Steller German Stellers Seel we Spanish Lobo marine de Steller Aleut qawax Russian Sivuch. This is the largest of the otariids. Males are reddish or dark brown to nearly white, average 1,248 lb (566 kg), and reach a maximum of 2,469 lb (1,120 kg). Females are tan, average 580 lb (263 kg), and reach a maximum of 772 lb (350 kg). Pups are chocolate, wooly, and weigh...

Milne Edwardss sifaka

Grandidier, 1871), Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES Malagasy Simpona, simpony. The face is reduced and the muzzle is shortened. Adult females and males do not show differences in weight, canine size, or coloration. Long legs, broad hands and feet, and a vertical clinging and leaping locomotion characterize sifakas. The tail is about the same length as the body. The tooth comb is used for grooming fur by both males and females. Milne-Edwards's sifakas are black with a...

Ringtailed lemur

Lemur catta Linnaeus, 1758, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Maque, maki mococo, maki German Katta Spanish Lemur colianillado. Adult head-and-body length of 15-18 in (39-46 cm), tail length of 22-24 in (56-62 cm), and adult body weight of 6.5-7.75 lb (3-3.5 kg). People without foreknowledge of lemurs, on seeing ringtailed lemurs in zoos or pictures, may regard them as some sort of aberrant raccoon, suggested by the overall shape and especially by the bandit-masked faces and vividly striped...

Civets genets and linsangs

Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Viverridae Small to medium carnivores resembling the Mustelidae but limited to the Old World body and tail are long, legs are short, and face is elongated with a pointy nose and conspicuous ears claws are short and sharp many species with long, banded tails 13-35 in (33-88 cm), 1.3-30 lb (0.6-13 kg) Forests, steppes, and brushland Conservation status Critically Endangered 1 species Endangered 4 species Vulnerable 6 species Data Deficient 3 species Western...

Northern greater bushbaby

Otolemur garnettii Ogilby, 1838 , Zanzibar. Formerly included in the genus Galago, but now allocated to the separate genus Otolemur. Previously included as a subspecies of Otolemur crassicaudatus. Four subspecies can be recognized for Otolemur gar-nettii. English Garnett's bushbaby French Galago de Garnett German Garnettgalago. Fur reddish- to grayish brown dorsally and paler but of variable coloration ventrally. No facial markings present. Head and body length 10.5 in 26.5 cm tail length 14.5...

Physical characteristics

Physical Features Masai Mara

Coloration of the body fur is often relatively inconspicuous and occasionally cryptic, generally being darker dorsally and paler ventrally. The face is usually virtually naked, although in some species there is a beard-like tuft of hair on the chin. However, in many cases the fur and skin on the face and sometimes on other areas of the body are conspicuously patterned, notably in various guenons, where species-specific coloration patterns on the head are commonly emphasized by characteristic...

Giant panda

Red Panda Overproduction

Ailuropoda melanoleuca David, 1869 , Mou-pin. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Cat bear, black and white bear French Le grand panda German Gro er Panda Spanish Oso panda. Particularly important to the tourism industry. Panda bears are a major attraction in zoos, and a symbol of species conservation efforts. Striking black-and-white bear with black fur around the eyes, on the ears, on all four legs, and across the back from shoulder to shoulder. Sometimes the black fur is replaced with reddish black...

Snow leopard

Felis uncial Schreber, 1775 , Persia. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Ounce French Panth re des nieges, l opard des nieges, once German Schneeleopard, Irbis Spanish Leopardo nival, pantera de las nieves. Length up to 51 in 130 cm tail 31-39 in 80-100 cm weight 77-120 lb 350-55 kg . Highly adapted to extreme conditions. Well-developed chest muscles, short forelimbs, thick tail to keep balance. Enlarged nasal cavity warms air passing into body. Thick coat up to 5 in 12 cm long, with dense, woolly...

Aripuana marmoset

Callithrix humeralifer intermedins Hershkovitz, 1977, Rio Aripuana, Brazil. French Ouistiti a camail German Weissschulterseidenaffe Portuguese Sagui-de-Aripuana. Average head and body length 9.4 in 24 cm tail length 12.6 in 32 cm . The head and upper half of the body is creamy white, while the lower half is brown. Brazilian Amazonia, between Rio Aripuana and Rio Roosevelt. HABITAT Tropical rainforest, both in mature and secondary vegetation. BEHAVIOR Groups are normally between 4-13...

Aardwolf and hyenas

Brown Hyenas Caves

Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Hyaenidae Large carnivores with powerful forequarters and less well developed hindquarters, large heads, powerful jaws and robust teeth, with medium length tails and four toes on each limb the aardwolf is a diminutive form with poorly developed teeth and five toes on the forefeet well developed anal pouches are present in all species Shoulder height 18-30 in 45-75 cm head and body length 38-52 in 95-130 cm 20-190 lb 9-85 kg From woodland savanna to desert...