Humans are global in distribution. They are not restricted by major geographic barriers, because of the use of technology to travel over water and land, and through the air. This dispersal ability is not new. By 1.7 mya, humans occupied an Old World geographic range that extended from the East African rift to the island of Java. This early broad distribution was accomplished without the benefit of transportation technology. It is based on intrinsic biological properties for ranging and foraging that allowed humans to expand their geographic distribution. Anatomically modern humans occupied and rapidly penetrated the continent of Australia between 46,000 and 50,000 years ago. The Australian evidence demonstrates that humans were able to cross a substantial water gap by this time, and could rapidly disperse through the entire continent.

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