Mandrill

Mandrillus sphinx

SUBFAMILY

Cercopithecinae

TRIBE

Papionini

TAXONOMY

Mandrillus sphinx (Linnaeus, 1758), Bitye, Ja River, Cameroon. This is one of only two species in the genus Mandrillus.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Mandrill; German: Mandrill; Spanish: Mandril.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Body fur is grizzled light brown dorsally and gray-white ven-trally. There is pronounced sexual dimorphism in coloration of the face and rump, with males being more brightly colored than females. In males, the nose is bright red and flanked by blue, ridged paranasal bulges along with white whiskers. There is an orange-yellow beard in both sexes, larger in males. In males, the rump is also colored red and blue and the penis is bright red. The coloration of females is similar but less striking. Males also have much larger canine teeth than females. The tail is markedly reduced. There is also a striking degree of sexual dimorphism in body size, with males weighing more that twice as much as females. For females, head and body length: 22 in (54.5 cm); tail length: 3 in (7.5 cm). Body mass: 69 lb 11 oz (31.6 kg) for males and 28 lb 7 oz (12.9 kg) for females.

DISTRIBUTION

Confined to equatorial tropical rainforest of west Africa in southern Cameroon, Río Muni, Gabon, and Congo.

HABITAT

Primary and secondary evergreen tropical rainforest, gallery forest, and coastal forest.

BEHAVIOR

Diurnal and semi-arboreal, sleeping in trees at night. Move around in large multimale troops that may be aggregates of individual one-male groups; it has recently been claimed that males are solitary and occupy territories through which females and young move.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Primarily feeds on fruits and seeds. Also eats leaves, bark, stems, and some animal prey, including both invertebrates (e.g., ants and termites) and vertebrates.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Polygamous. Single births are typical. Females have small but prominent sexual swellings that are bright red when maximally swollen around the time of ovulation. Gestation period 175 days.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Listed as Vulnerable.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Frequently hunted as a source of bushmeat. ♦

Common name / Scientific name/ Other common names

Physical characteristics

Habitat and behavior

Distribution

Diel

Conservation status

Gray-cheeked mangabey Cercocebus albigena

Sooty mangabey Cercocebus atys

Diana monkey Cercopithecus diana Spanish: Cercopiteco diana

Dark pelage and long, ruffled fall. Gray cheeks, Found In swamp, flooded, and Cameroon, Central African Fruits, mainly figs, and

Not threatened long limbs, and long fail. Average body mass primary evergreen forests, as 19.8-22 lb (9-10 kg) for males, 14.12-15.4 lb well as secondary forests with (6.4-7.0 kg) for females. evergreen forests nearby.

Species is arboreal, diurnal. Group size is 14 to 17 individuals. Social system is either single male or multi-male.

Dark gray to black pelage, giving sooty or dirty Found mainly in primary and color. Long limbs and tail. Average body mass secondary forests and in flooded, 18.7 lb (8.5 kg). dry, swamp, mangrove, and gallery forests. Species is arboreal and diurnal. Group size can consist of up to 95 individuals. Moves quadrupedally.

Republic, Congo, seeds, but also eats leaves,

Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, foliage, flowers, and animal Uganda, and Zaire. prey (arthropods).

Agile mangabey Cercocebus galeritus Spanish: Mangabeye del Rio Tana

Upperparts are golden brown with black, or dark brown with gold. Underparts are orange or whitish. Long limbs and long tail. Whorl or parting of hair on top of head. Average male body mass 22.5 lb (10.2 kg), female 11.9 lb (5.4 kg).

Campbell's monkey Cercopithecus campbelli Spanish: Cercopiteco de Campbell

Coloration on upperparts ranges from greenish gray or black to greenish yellow or buff. Underparts are white or gray. Face is naked. Considerable color variation. Head and body length 12.8-27.6 in (32.5-70 cm), tail length 19.7-39.4 lb (50-100 cm).

Pelage is black and surrounded by white beard. Large cheek pouches to carry food while foraging. Average male body mass 11 lb (5 kg), female 8.8 lb (4 kg).

Sierra Leone to Ghana.

Found mainly in forests that are seasonally flooded, and will also live in open-canopied gallery forests and in areas near rivers. Species is arboreal and diurnal. Group size ranges from 7 to 36 individuals. Moves quadrupedally. Main core of group is adult female and offspring. Social system is led by single male or is multi-male.

Found in various habitats, including primary lowland rainforest, secondary forest, riverine forest, and drier woodland. Group size ranges from 8 to 13 individuals. Diurnal species that moves quadrupedally. Very territorial and there are two types of groups; ones with one male and a number of females, and male-only groups.

Found mainly in primary and. secondary forests in upper canopy. Group size ranges from 14 to 50 individuals. Species is arboreal and diurnal. Moves quadrupedally. Species has unimale social structure.

Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Zaire.

Mainly fruits and seeds, but also eats leaves, foliage, flowers, animal prey, and gum.

Mainly fruits and seeds, but also eats leaves, foliage, flowers, animal prey, and gum.

Gambia to Ghana.

Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

Lower Risk/Near Threatened

Lower Risk/Near Threatened

Mainly fruits, leaves, and gums.

Not threatened

Mainly and primarily fruits and seeds, but also eats leaves and arthropods.

Endangered

[continued]

Common name /

Scientific name/

Physical

Habitat and

Conservation

Other common names

characteristics

behavior

Distribution

Diet

status

Blue monkey

Blue, reddish brown, or grayish brown. Large

Found in a variety of habitats,

Angola, Burundi, Congo,

Mainly fruits, but also

Not threatened

Cercopithecusmitis

cheeks. Average male body mass 15.2 lb

but never very far away from a

Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi,

seeds, arthropods, and

Spanish: Cercopiteco azul

(6.9 kg), female 9.3 lb (4.2 kg).

water source. Group size ranges

Mozambique, Rwanda,

leaves.

from 10 to 40 individuals.

Somalia, South Africa,

Species is highly arboreal and

Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda,

diurnal. Moves quadrupedally.

Zaire, Zambia, and

Uni-male social system with

Zimbabwe.

polygynous mating system.

Black mangabey

Coarse and glossy black hairs, long brown

Found in primary and secondary

Central Zaire.

Mainly fruits and seeds,

Lower Risk/Near

Lophocebus aterrimus

whiskers, high conical crest. Head and body

forests, as well as flooded areas.

but also eats leaves, foliage,

Threatened

German: Schopfmangaben

length 15-35 in (38.2-88.8 cm), tail length

Species is arboreal and diurnal.

flowers, animal prey, and

17.1-30.1 in (43.4-76.4 cm), weight 6.6-

Group size ranges from 11 to 20

gum.

26.5 lb (3-12 kg).

individuals. Moves quadrupedally.

Females form linear hierarchy,

main core of groups is females

and offspring.

Toque macaque

Orange to red, female may have red face. Long

Found in a variety of forest types,

Sri Lanka.

Mainly fruits, but also eats

Vulnerable

Macaca sinica

imbs and long tail. Average male body mass

generally those that are located

flowers, insects, food from

French: Macaque couronné,

12.6 lb (5.7 kg), female 7.9 lb (3.6 kg).

near water. This species does not

crops, and garbage.

macaque toque; Spanish: Macaca

live near humans. Average group

de Sri Lanka

size is 20.6 individuals. Species is

diurnal, travels quadrupedally, has

a multimale-multifemale social

system. Less dominant individuals

are forced to feed in areas with

less food.

Drill

Olive-green, face and ears are black. Region

Found in mature primary forests

Southeastern Nigeria;

Mostly fruits, but also

Endangered

Mandiillus leucophaeus

around anus is colored red, which is more

that are lowland, riverine, or

Cameroon, north of the

insects, leaves, roots,

Spanish: Dril

pronounced when excited. Swells exist on

coastal. Sometimes also found in

Sanaga River and just south ground plants, cultivated

sides of nasal area. Infants born with light-

secondary forests. On Bioko

of it; and Bioko Island,

crops, snails, turtle eggs,

colored face that darkens to black at 8 months of

Island, they can be found in

Equatorial Guinea.

and coconuts.

age. Average male body mass 44.1 lb (20 kg),

altitudes from sea level to 3,940 ft

female 27.6 lb (12.5 kg).

(1,200 m). Group size ranges

from 14 to 200 individuals.

Species is diurnal, moves quad

rupedally, and has a uni-male

social system. Infanticide may

occur in the wild.

Guinea baboon

Coloration has red tone to it. Hindquarters lack

Found in savanna, woodland,

Guinea, Liberia, Mali,

Mainly fruits, but also

Lower Risk/Near

Papio papio

hair and are red in color. Males have mantle of

steppe, and gallery forests. Group

Mauritania, Senegal, and

flowers, roots, grasses,

Threatened

fur around head. Head and body length 20-45 in

size ranges from 40 to 200

Sierra Leone.

bark, twigs, sap, tubers,

(50.8-114.3 cm), tail length 18-28 in (45.6-

individuals. Species has a

bulbs, mushrooms, lichens,

71.1 cm).

multimale-multifemale social

aquatic plants, seeds, shoots,

system, moves quadrupedally on

buds, invertebrates, and

the ground, is highly competitive

small vertebrates, such as

(internally), and there is a

gazelle.

matrilineal hierarchy

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