Significance to humans

Common marmosets are one of the most widely used primate species in biomedical research, and cotton-top tamarins are an important primate model for the study of colitis and colon cancer. Other callitrichids like moustached tamarins and red-bellied tamarins are also used in different areas of biomedical research. Today, most marmosets and tamarins in biomedical research are captive bred. In their habitat countries, marmosets and tamarins are appreciated as pet monkeys. In the 1960s and 1970s, several species (e.g., golden lion tamarins and cotton-top tamarins) were heavily trapped and exported to the Northern Hemisphere. Due to their small body size, marmosets and tamarins are rarely hunted for food, quite in contrast to larger primate species.

Recent research has pointed to the possibility that common marmosets may represent a reservoir for rabies in Brazil.

Callithrix Flaviceps

1. Aripuana marmoset (Mico intermedius); 2. Buffy-headed marmoset (Callithrix flaviceps); 3. Saddleback tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis); 4. Pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea); 5. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). (Illustration by Joseph E. Trumpey)

Golden Headed Lion Faced Marmoset

1. Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii); 2. Golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia); 3. Cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus); 4. Golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas). (Illustration by Joseph E. Trumpey)

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