A chlamydial infection may be suspected based purely on clinical symptoms. Gene amplification methods (PCR, LRC) are the best procedures for confirming the diagnosis. Sensitivity is superior to, while specificity is nearly equal to results obtained by culture (Morre 2005). To achieve optimum results, a dry cotton wool wad should be used to collect some epithelioid cells, which should be sent to the laboratory in dry storage.

Other direct tests such as ELISA or direct immunofluorescence are also possible, but there is a lack of sensitivity in populations with low prevalence.

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