Fermentation Mass Production

There are potentially three fermentation systems that may be used for mass production of mycoherbicide agents submerged liquid culture, solid substrate fermentation, and two-phase system (Auld 1993a). At the industrial level, liquid fermentation is the most common method for economical production of microbial inoculum. Two commercial myco-herbicides, Collego and Devine , are manufactured this way in the United States (Churchill 1982 Stowell 1991). By understanding the importance of nutritional...

Nutritional And Medicinal Values Of Mushrooms

It is primarily the flavor and texture for which the mushrooms are devoured by the mankind, and scientific appreciation of their nutritional and medicinal attributes is a recent phenomenon. Mushrooms have, from nutrition point of view, a distinct place in human diet which otherwise consists of items either of plant or animal origin. Mushrooms are perhaps the only fungi deliberately and knowingly consumed by human beings, and they complement and supplement the human diet with various ingredients...

Auricularia spp Wood Ear Mushroom

The species of Auricularia, commonly known as wood ear mushroom, are morphologically and, above all, texturally quite distinct from other mushrooms. With typical ear like morphology with cartilaginous texture and gelatinous surface, these are liked as well as disliked at the same time by different people. This mushroom is very popular in China and Southeast Asia but does not seem to attract western consumers. It has been reported to possess many medicinal attributes treatment of piles, sore...

Maintenance and Preservation of Fungal Cultures

Pure culture of edible fungi is prepared either by multispore culture or tissue culture the former is suitable for obtaining fruiting cultures of A. bisporus but is not a suitable technique for heterothallic species. Tissue cultures derived from the stipe or pileus of the mushrooms, both homothallic as well as heterothallic species, can be used to raise fruiting cultures. For multispore culture, a healthy and mature fruitbody of the mushroom is first washed in sterile water, surface-sterilized...

Tlc H Plc Ms

Figure 3 The agar plug extraction method is a simple scheme by which extracts for metabolite profiling can be prepared rapidly using only a minute amount of solvent (Smedsgaard 1997a). The first step in metabolite profiling for fungal identification is to obtain the metabolites produced by the fungi growing on some sort of substrate, see Section 2.2 and Table 1. Depending on the group of metabolites of interest, two main schemes can be used to collect metabolites for a profile (a) an extraction...

Fermented Meat Products Sausages

The starter culture used in meat fermentation may have bacteria, the yeasts Deboryomyces hansanii and Candida famata and the fungi Penicillium chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense. Yeasts encourage color development and improve aroma in sausages. Molds contribute to the characteristic aroma. During fermentation, the fall in pH due to glycolysis by lactic acid bacteria helps to preserve the fermented product and inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, and the production of nitric oxide due to...

Tuber Cropbased Fermented Food

Tuber crops include cassava, yams, taros, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. With the exception of cassava, tuber crops keep well and hence not many fermented products are prepared. (a) African Fufu This is made from cassava roots and eaten with soup, sauce, or stew. Peeled cassava roots are washed, cut up, soaked in water to release HCN into water, disintegrated, and sieved. The filtered starchy particles are allowed to settle and collected, rolled into balls, cooked, and formed into a paste called...

Fruitbased Alcoholic Beverages

A variety of alcoholic beverages is made from fruits. The quality of fruit wine depends on the fruit variety, maturity of fruit, yeast strains, other vinification practices, and the method of preservation. (a) Mango Wine Mangoes are first pulped, Pectinase is then added followed by fermentation with S. cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus (Joshi et al. 1999) (b) Jambal wine Crushed Jambal fruits are diluted and the must ameliorated with cane sugar. Diammonium hydrogen phosphate, sulfur dioxide, and...

Fermented Milk Products

The advantages include easy production, improved keeping quality, better digestibility and nutritive value, and therapeutic potential. Only the acid-tolerant bacteria can grow during milk fermentation. (a) Egyptian Kishk is a fermented milk-wheat mixture that is stored as dried balls. To prepare kishk, wheat grains are softened by boiling, air-dried, and then ground. Milk is added to the ground wheat to produce a paste that is rolled into balls. Spices may be added to the balls before they are...

Integrating Bcpd With Other Alternatives

Although BCPD can provide levels of control that are commercially acceptable, the performance margin of biocontrol is generally lower than for fungicides. For example, higher concentrations of the antagonist must be used to achieve the same control of decay as fruit mature. To increase the performance margin of biocontrol, attempts have been made to integrate biocontrol with other alternatives to synthetic fungicide methods that were developed mainly during the past two decades (Conway and Sams...

References

Alexander NJ, Hohn TM, and McCormick SP (1999). TRI12, a trichothecene efflux pump from Fusarium sporotrichioides gene isolation and expression in yeast. Mol Gen Genet 261 977-984. Appel RD, Palagi PM, Walther D, Vargas JD, Sanchez JC, Ravier F, Pasquali C, and Hochstrasser DF (1997). Melanie II A third-generation software package for analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis images I. Features and user interface. Electrophoresis 18 2724-2734. Bai GH, Plattner R, Desjardins A, and Kolb F...

Limitations And Potential

The economic threshold for commercial selection of a biological process to replace a physico-chemical process for heavy metal removal from a waste stream as assessed by Macaskie (1991) is that a metal-loading capacity greater than 15 of the biomass dry wt must be demonstrated. Before the selection of any technology, it is imperative to note the hierarchy of hazardous waste management options reduce reuse recycle. The option of last resort is to treat and dispose of the waste in safe landfills,...

Biopesticide Potential Of Entomopathogenic Fungi

There are a number of methods for using entomopathogenic fungi against insect pests. Eilenberg et al. (2001) recognized four main strategies (a) classical biological control, the intentional introduction of an exotic strain for long term, unmanaged control, (b) inoculative biocontrol, the intentional release of endemic strains for long-term unmanaged biocontrol of endemic pests, (c) inundative biological control, Table 1 Biopesticides based on entomopathogenic fungi (Milner 2GGG Reddy et al....

Rapd

Villa et al. (unpublished) Fernandez-Espinar et al. (unpublished) Figure 2 Molecular methods to yeast characterization intron splice sites, 8 sequences, microsatellites and RAPD. On the basis of chromosomal profiles, Frezier and Dubourdieu (1992) found that a small number of S. cerevisiae strains were capable of dominating fermentations in the same winery over two vintages, independently of the grapevine cultivar. Vezinhet et al. (1992) investigated using mtDNA analysis and electrophoretic...

List of Producers and Formulators of Commercial AM Inoculum

These bio-inoculants are now formulated in different formulations. These are designed on the basis of their application to different crops and locations. They are available in the form of powders, tablets pellets, gel beads, and balls. Intraradical forms of Glomus sp. (vesicles and mycelium fragments) were entrapped in alginate and used as inocula. Isolated intraradical material was found to regenerate in alginate beads and the regenerated mycelium infected roots under controlled conditions...

Selection and Improvement of Bioherbicide Agents

On average, chemical companies screen more than 60,000 compounds before a new active ingredient of pesticide can be determined. The number required for screening biocontrol agents should be less due to a relatively smaller range of variations amongst naturally occurring fungal populations. However, if we are to identify nature's best, a systematic approach is essential during the exploration and discovery phase to thoroughly evaluate the biodiversity. This diversity provides excellent...

Volvariella spp Paddy Straw Mushroom

Volvariella is a mushroom of the tropics and subtropics it grows at a relatively high temperature of around 35 C. This is a very fast growing mushroom, it takes about 10 days from spawning to first harvesting, is easiest to cultivate with a cropping cycle of 3 weeks but does not give good economic yields and its shelf-life is poorest of all mushrooms. Understandably, its production in 1997 was only 0.18 million tonnes and it contributed only 3 to the world mushroom production while its share...

Adaptive Evolution of Wine Yeast Strains

Although the origin of S. cerevisiae is a matter of controversy, its original genome has been subjected to strong selective pressures since its first unconscious use in controlled fermentation processes. Useful phenotypic traits, such as fast growth in sugar-rich media, high alcohol production and tolerance, and good flavor production, which have been selected over billions of generations, have had strong influences on the S. cerevisiae genome (Perez-Ortin et al. 2002). We now will analyze some...

Interpretation Of Isozyme Data

The best guide for interpreting isozyme banding patterns is to perform a thorough genetic analysis. Unfortunately, for many fungi this may be difficult or impossible. The purpose of this section is to provide enough information for accurate interpretation of isozyme banding patterns even without a genetic analysis. Accurate interpretation of isozyme banding patterns requires knowledge of the ploidy of the organism and the number of subunits required to form the active enzyme. Most enzymes...

Preface

The study of fungal biotechnology is proceeding at an unprecedented rate with an array of new tools to generate a wealth of disciplines and subdisciplines. By means of modern biotechnology, fungi have justified their practical application to varied domains of human enterprise, and thus promise considerable potential in the agricultural, food, and environmental spheres. The successful application of fungal biotechnological processes in these areas requires the integration of a number of...

Filamentous Fungi

Compared to yeasts, filamentous fungi have been used less frequently for bioconversion of distillery wastes. The reasons might be that they are slower growing and more susceptible to infection. However, filamentous fungi have some advantages as they produce a series of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes and are therefore able to exploit complex carbohydrates without prior hydrolysis this property enables them to grow in starch and cellulose substrates. The second advantage is in their filamentous...

Extracellular Precipitation of Metals

Exceeding a solubility product leads to precipitation of an insoluble salt of the reacting species. Sulfide anion (S22) and oxalate anion (C2O4_) are produced by some species of micro-organisms and these anions can form very insoluble salts with heavy metal ions which exhibit very small solubility products as noted by Veglio and Beolchini (1997). Copper phosphate precipitation occurring within the matrix of mycelia of the fungus Penicillium ochro-chloron after 4 days of incubation in shake...

Amplification Based Methods

Sensitivity of detection can be greatly improved through the use of the different in vitro amplification methods polymerase chain reaction (PCR), ligase chain reaction or self-sustained sequence replication, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) . With the exception of PCR and NASBA, the above-mentioned in vitro amplification methods have had only limited practical relevance in food monitoring (e.g., Stubbs et al. 1994). Since its discovery, a considerable number of PCR-based assays...

Cerealbased Fermented Food

Cereals including wheat and rice form the largest class of food. Bread is the most commonly found cereal-based fermented food. (a) Chinese Minchin This is made from wheat gluten and used as a solid condiment. The fungal species involved in fermentation include Aspergillus sp., Chadosporium sp., Fusarium syncephalastum, and Paecilomyces sp. (Padmaja and George 1999) (b) Chinese red rice (Anka) This is produced by fermenting rice with various strains of M. purpureus Went. It is used to color...

H

B C6H5CH2CH(COOEt)NH-c C6H5CH2CH(COOMe)NH- Figure 2 Structure of the ochratoxins. These metabolites form different classes depending on the nature of the amide group (a-c), and the presence or absence of a chlorine moiety at R2 in the phenyl group. 3.2.2 Toxicological Effects and Mode of Action Ochratoxin A, the most toxic member of this group of mycotoxins, has been found to be a potent nephrotoxin causing kidney damage as well as liver necrosis and enteritis in many animal species reviewed in...

Isolating and Culturing Fungi

Despite the benefits of mycorrhizal associations, application has not been widely used on a commercial scale. For commercial development, large quantities of inoculum must be produced. Since AM are obligate biotrophs, they must be grown and maintained on living plant roots. This is often problematic because of the high risk of introducing plant pathogens and other contaminants into the culture system (Jarstfer and Sylvia 1997). In contrast, EM fungi may grow on agar media in the absence of a...

Introduction

Hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the environment, but they are most abundant where coal and petroleum fuels are stored, processed, or burned (TuhaCkova et al. 2001 Warshawsky 1999). Because many hydrocarbons are toxic, their biological effects have been studied extensively. Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aluminum, coke, and steel industries has been linked to lung and bladder cancer (Mastrangelo et al. 1996) and exposure to hydrocarbon fuels may produce...

Legumebased Fermented Foods

Legumes are used for food production mainly in Asia. Fermentation improves digestibility of legumes by hydro-lyzing proteins, and breaking down antinutritional molecules like trypsin inhibitors. (a) Tempe (Tempeh) Kedele This is a fermented soybean-based food, popular with American vegetarians and also available in Canada, the West Indies, Holland, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It is supplied in the form of a white, moldy cake. The beans are cleaned, soaked, dehulled, partially cooked, drained,...

Applications Of Isozyme Analysis

Isozyme analysis can be applied to address a wide variety of biological questions in the fungi. These markers usually are considered to be selectively neutral so are ideal for looking at sources of inoculum for pathogenic fungi or gene flow among populations. The markers can indicate whether specific tissues are haploid or diploid, can aid strain or species identification, and can be used to identify hybridization either in the laboratory or in nature. 5.1 Taxonomy and Species Identification...

Safety And Quality Control Of Microbial Protein Products

The safety and acceptance of microbial protein products has to be strictly controlled, as in the case of all foods. The concepts underlying the acceptance and safety of novel protein sources including mycoprotein products were developed between 1970 and 1974 by the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations (PAG), initially based on established toxicological experience. During the 70s the experience was accumulating with the incorporation of an increasing number of preparations of microbial...

Alcoholic Food And Beverages Mostly Cerealbased

These are primitive beers and wines prepared by villages in the developing countries. They are cloudy slurries containing residues and microorganisms including yeasts, and hence are a source of B vitamins, proteins, amino acids, and calories. (a) Ethiopian Tej This is a home-processed honey wine fermented by Saccharomyces species present in the environment that convert sugars to ethanol. To make Ethiopian tej, honey, water, and hop stems are fermented in a pot for about 1 week at high ambient...

Substrate Compost Preparation

Substrate preparation technique for the button mushroom has witnessed evolutionary changes over the years, from the long-method of composting to the current environment-friendly indoor composting. However, the intermediate short-method of composting, is still the most popular method all over the world. Long method of composting is the oldest method and now exists only in few pockets of the world mainly because of poor productivity, proneness to attack by the competitors, and also due to more...

Major Constraints And Solutions In Commercialization Of Am Biofertilizer

Perhaps the most important deterrent to the commercial use of mycorrhizal fungi globally is the lack of large-scale multi-location field trials in a variety of agricultural soils and an absence of general lack of awareness among the users. Without such an activity it will be difficult to establish a market for mycorrhizal inoculum. Without a market there is little incentive for a commercial setup to initiate the production of inoculum on a commercial scale, and only large-scale production will...

Essential Oils

The antimicrobial activities of extracts from several types of plants and plant parts used as flavoring agents in foods and beverages have been recognized for many years. Some of these essential oils have antifungal properties. Conner and Beuchat (1984) documented the effects of garlic and onion against yeasts and other investigators have shown these extracts to be inhibitory to molds. Alderman and Marth (1976) examined the effects of lemon and orange oils on Aspergillus flavus and found when...

Saprotrophs of Attached and Fallen Wood and Litter

Saprotrophic fungi are the principle decomposers of nonliving plant and animal detritus in the natural environment, thus recycling chemical elements back to the environment in a form other organisms may utilize. Filamentous fungi usually dominate wood and litter decomposing communities, but under particular ecological circumstances, for e.g., for wood in tropical ecosystems termites may predominate, and under waterlogged conditions bacteria may prevail (Rayner and Boddy 1988). Other wood and...

Mycotoxin Biosynthetic Genes As Targets for Detection of Fungi

Mycotoxins are a chemically diverse group of fungal secondary metabolites that are harmful to animals and humans. Several hundreds of different mycotoxins have been identified, but only about 20 of them are relevant to human health. Most of the mycotoxin-producing species are filamentous ascomycetes or deuteromycetes, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium are considered as being the most important mycotoxin-producing genera. Most mycotoxins are very resistant to physical or chemical treatments....

Host Nutritional Effects

Mycorrhizal plants are generally able to tolerate pathogens and compensate for root damage and photosynthate drain by pathogens (Azcon-Aguilar and Barea 1992 Declerck et al. 2002), because AMF enhance host nutrition and overall plant growth. For example, Declerck et al. (2002) found that G. proliferum and a Glomus sp. isolate not only stimulated growth and increased shoot P content of banana in the presence and absence of the root rot fungus Cylindrocladium spathiphylli, but also reduced root...

Biopesticides Based on Fungi

Application of fungi in mass inoculations against insect pests began with Krassilstchik in 1888. Indeed, such was the optimism at that time Krassilstchik confidently predicted the idea of controlling insects by means of artificially induced epidemics, an idea expressed some 20 years ago by scholars, has become a practically feasible one, which in the future will be perfected and broadly utilized (Krassilstchik 1888). Unfortunately, progress has been much slower than what was predicted. While...

Pleurotus spp Oyster Mushrooms

Mushroom Histology

Unlike most of the cultivated mushrooms, which represent one species, a group of species of the genus Pleurotus are commercially cultivated and referred commonly as oyster mushrooms. Pleurotus ostreatus Jack. ex.Fr. Kummer, is best known species among oyster mushrooms and the specific epithet oyster obviously refers to its Oyster-shell like appearance of the fruitbodies. Pleurotus spp. are most versatile of all the mushrooms, representing about fifteen species capable of growing over a wide...

Selected Trichothecenes TCTCs

Several species of Fusaria infect corn, wheat, barley, and rice. Under favorable conditions, they elaborate a number of different types of tetracyclic sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins that are composed of the epoxytrichothecene skeleton and an olefinic bond with different side chain substitutions Figure 4 . Based on the presence of a macrocyclic ester or ester-ether bridge between C-4 and C-15, trichothecenes TCTCs are generally classified as macrocyclic Type C or nonmacro-cyclic Types A and B Figure...

Mycoprotein Production Quorn Products

Fusarium Venenatum

In order to ensure that Quorn is produced according to approved health regulations, the fermentation process is currently supported on glucose nearly all of which is obtained from maize and approved inorganic medium constituents and vitamins. However, the process may also be applied with various sources of starch as the carbon source Figure 2 Diagramatic representation of the Quorn air-lift fermenter used by Marlow Foods for the production of mycoprotein in continuous flow culture, Courtesy P....

Fermentation

All technologies developed for industrial scale have the same aims maximal production of desired ergot alkaloids, minimum amount of accompanying contaminants other alkaloids, toxins, etc. , the shortest possible time of fermentation, minimized cost of medium, energy, equipments, and labor. For the production of ergot alkaloids, different fermentation technologies have been employed a stationary cultivation on liquid or solid medium Kybal and Vlcek 1976 Trejo-Hernandez and Lonsane 1993 , b...