The starter culture used in meat fermentation may have bacteria, the yeasts Deboryomyces hansanii and Candida famata and the fungi Penicillium chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense. Yeasts encourage color development and improve aroma in sausages. Molds contribute to the characteristic aroma. During fermentation, the fall in pH due to glycolysis by lactic acid bacteria helps to preserve the fermented product and inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms, and the production of nitric oxide due to activity of the nitrate and nitrite reducing bacteria results in the production of nitrosomyoglobin that accounts for the odor of the meat product. During ripening, proteolytic activity due to enzymes in meat and bacterial starter cultures, and lipolytic enzymes in molds and yeasts lead to products which may contribute to flavor (Hammes and Knauf 1994).
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