Fruitbased Alcoholic Beverages

A variety of alcoholic beverages is made from fruits. The quality of fruit wine depends on the fruit variety, maturity of fruit, yeast strains, other vinification practices, and the method of preservation.

(a) Mango Wine: Mangoes are first pulped, Pectinase is then added followed by fermentation with S. cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus (Joshi et al. 1999); (b) Jambal wine: Crushed

Jambal fruits are diluted and the must ameliorated with cane sugar. Diammonium hydrogen phosphate, sulfur dioxide, and pectinol enzyme are introduced, then follows fermentation with the yeast S. cerevisiae (Joshi et al. 1999); (c) Coconut toddy: This is produced by naturally fermenting the influorescence sap of coconut palm in open pots for 2 days. Candida spp., Kloeckera javanice, Saccharomyces chevielier, S. exiguus, S. marxianus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Pichia ohmeri are involved in the fermentation process; (d) Palm wine: S. cerevisiae is the yeast usually instrumental in fermentation. Other fungi including Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida, Mycoderma, Aspergillus, Mucor, Pichia sp., and Rhizopus sp. are detected together with lactic acid bacteria in Nigerian wine (Faparusi 1977). Atputharajah et al. (1986) identified Candida, Pichia and Saccharomyces species as the major yeasts responsible for the natural fermentation of coconut palm sap. The wine is a milky suspension of live bacteria and yeasts. It has a sweet taste and exhibits vigorous effervescence due to fermentation. The wine is made from sap collected from a cut on middle-aged flowering palm trees. It is collected in earthenware pots containing the bacteria and yeasts and any left-over toddy; (e) Indian jackfruit wine: To make jackfruit wine, seeds are removed from peeled ripe jackfruits and the pulp soaked and ground in a bamboo basket. The extract is collected in earthenware pots. A small amount of fermented juice is added as inoculum and the extract is allowed to ferment at 18-30°C for a week. The yeast involved in fermentation appears to be Endomycopsis (Dahiya and Prabhu 1977); (f) Date wines: Different types of date wine involve different fungi that include Torulopsis, Saccharo-myces, and Candida spp. and also different bacterial species including Acetobacter, Bacillus, Gluconobacter, Klebsiella, and Leuconostoc. Dates are either soaked in lukewarm water and allowed to ferment for about 4 days, or boiled to form a syrup which is then allowed to ferment for about 3 days in a cloth bag of either sorghum malt or a mixture of ginger and cinnamon immersed in the syrup (Ali and Dirar 1984); (g) Plum wine: To prepare plum wine, water and starter culture are added to the plums and fermented for about 10 days before pressing for juice. The yeast S. pombe is used for deacidification of the acidic plum pulp. S. cerevisiae is used for alcohol production (Joshi et al. 1999); (h) Mead (honey wine): S. cerevisiae is used for alcoholic fermentation in the production of mead and wine from apples, pears and plums where honey is utilized as a source of sugar (Joshi et al. 1999); (i) Kiwi fruit wine: Kiwi fruit juice is clarified with the help of pectolytic enzyme with the resulting generation of an intense fruity aroma. The juice is highly acidic and has low sugar content, making it necessary to ameliorate the juice. S. cerevisiae is added to the must before fementation. The ascorbic acid content is preserved by SO2 at low concentration (Joshi et al. 1999); (j) Apricot wine, litchi wine, sparkling plum wine: S. cerevisiae is involved. (a) Apricot wine: made by diluting apricot pulp with water (1:2 by volume), addition of 0.5% pectinol and 0.1% diammonium hydrogen phosphate and fermentation with S. cerevisiae, (b) litchi wine: peeled litchi fruits are dipped in sugar solution for

4h at 50°C. The fruits are pulped and water is added. Yeast is then added to the litchi juice and fermentation allowed to proceed, and (c) sparkling plum wine: plums preserved in sodium benzoate, a sugar concentration of 1.5%, a diammonium hydrogen phosphate concentration of 2% and the yeast S. cerevisiae strain UCD 595 are used to yield optimal results (Joshi et al. 1999); (k) Brandy: This refers to the distillate obtained by distillation of wine or any other fermented fruit juice or residue. Grape products are most commonly used, but apple, peach, plum, cashew apple, and apricot products can also be used. Various yeasts are involved in fermentation including S. cerevisiae, S. capensis, S. ludwigii, S. rosei, and S. uvarum. SO2 is not used in order to prevent formation of sulfuric acid which would considerably lower the pH (Joshi et al. 1999).

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