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Working together to grow libraries in developing countries www.elsevier.com www.bookaid.org www.sabre.org Dedication to Kristin S. Loomis, Executive Director, HHV-6 Foundation We want to pay tribute to Kristin for her hard and never-ending work on promoting HHV-6 research, educating practicing physicians and disseminating information about HHV-6 to patients and their family members. In April 2004, Kristin and Annette Whittemore co-founded the HHV-6 Foundation, and Kristin became the Executive...

Pathophysiology of HHV6 reactivation in DRESS

The mechanism by which HHV-6 is reactivated and participated in the development of DRESS is not yet understood. Many factors are probably implicated in DRESS as recently summarized by Wong and Shear (2004) drug exposure, genetic predisposition, drug interactions, concomitant illness, host immune response with generation of drug-specific T cells, cytokines, transient hypogammaglobulinemia, reactivation of latent viral infection, viral infection, etc. A genetic predisposition is obviously...

HHV6 association with CFS

One of the first reports of isolated post-infectious fatigue associated with encephalitis, lymph proliferation, and the presence of HHV-6 infection, was made by Buchwald et al. (1990). Daugherty et al. (1991) also reported a group of patients with profound fatigue lymphadenopathy and cognitive dysfunction associated with evidence of HHV-6 reactivation, although variant analysis was not available at that time. Early studies of CFS patients demonstrated an increase in serum IgG and IgM for HHV-6...

Current immunological tools

Although lymphoproliferation (LPA) has remained largely an immunological tool for the research laboratory, there are now a variety of new methodologies that do not require use of radioactive materials or the prolonged incubation times of LPA. These include flow cytometry assays to quantify subsets of circulating cells based on cell surface characteristics, ELISPOT to assess expression of cytokines, and newer cytokine genotype microarray methodologies. Genotype microarray technologies offer...

HHV6 exhibits transforming capacities

The 3.9 kbp Sall-L fragment located within the direct repeat region of HHV-6 variant A was shown to transform the murine NIH3T3 cell line, human epidermal keratinocytes RHEK-1, and both primary and established rodent cells (Razzaque et al., 1993 Thompson et al., 1994). This transforming activity was localized to the DR7 gene and cells expressing DR7 protein-induced tumours when injected into immunodeficient nude mice, while cells expressing truncated DR7 protein did not (Kashanchi et al.,1997)....

Reactivation and endogenous reinfection

Primary HHV-6 infection causes lifelong persistence of the virus with occasional reactivation in 25 of the infected at any given time. HHV-6 persists in salivary glands, possibly also in terminal bronchi and neuroglial cells (Fox et al., 1990 Krueger et al., 1990 Donati et al., 2005). Reactivation may follow other infections or the exposure to endotoxins, endocrine stimulation including in stress situations, Fig. 3 Some characteristic tissue reactions in HHV-6 infections. Top Row Blastic...

Discovery and Classification of Human Herpesvirus6 HHV6

AHHV-6 Foundation, 285 San Ysidro Road, Santa Barbara, CA 93108, USA bDepartment of Microbiology & Immunology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA The discovery of herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) dates back to early 1985 when Zaki Sal-ahuddin, in Dr. Robert Gallo's Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, was establishing long-term cultures from peripheral blood and splenic tissue of AIDS patients. He frequently found large syncytia that were distinct from HIV-1-induced syncytia....

Indirect sequelae

HHV-6 is considered an immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive virus that may facilitate superinfections with other opportunistic infections and contribute to higher mortality (Flamand et al., 1995 Singh and Carrigan, 1996 Dockrell et al., 1997 Singh et al., 1997). Zerr et al. (2005) showed in SCT patients that detection of HHV-6 in plasma predicted for subsequent all-cause mortality. Also liver transplant recipients with HHV-6 had a significantly higher mortality the independent association...

HHV6 Genome Similar and Different

ADepartment of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, University of London, UK b Virology Unit, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia cAFRO VPD, World Health Organisation, Harare, Zimbabwe Roseoloviruses, human herpesviruses 6 and 7 (HHV-6, HHV-7) are widespread T lymphotropic and neurotropic viruses causing mostly benign infections. However, particularly for HHV-6, during some primary as well as secondary reactivated infections, which can...

HHV6 therapy in CFS patients

CFS patients with active infection by HHV-6 (variants A or B) can be treated with antivirals or immune modulatory agents in order to relieve the symptoms of fatigue and minimize CNS complaints. Acyclovir has remained the gold standard of treatment for herpes viral infections in general. However, pilot studies using acyclovir and ganciclovir showed persistence of HHV-6 variant A in spinal fluid even after treatment (Peterson, unpublished studies). HHV-6 does not encode thymidine kinase, and thus...

Bone marrow transplant

The immunosuppressive regimens used in bone marrow transplant (BMT) tend to be even more severe than those in solid organ transplant. Most BMT recipients are immunocompromised initially by their underlying disease that is further exacerbated by total body irradiation, lymphodepleting antibodies, steroids, and the anti-pro-liferative drugs associated with chemotherapy. Although the immunosuppressive protocol for allogeneic transplants is considerably more aggressive than autologous transplants,...