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Photography Jobs Online

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Photography Explained

Ken Duncan and Leo Meier are two key contributors to the designing and creation of this helpful guide book. Ken Duncan is an experienced and an expert photographer who started at a time when no one offered any such a guide to upcoming photographers. This eBook helps you on how to take pictures with a WOW factor. This helps you to get those wow shots, the author wants to make sure every person in the industry will understand your photography and would want to hire you. The authors guide you from the point of buying your digital camera to the point of taking quality photos that everyone wants to see. You will get some insights about the focus length, lenses, light and how to make light work for you and much more. This program is intended for photographers especially beginners who have not yet sharpened their skills. Though, it can work well for other photographers who want to advance their photo taking skills. The main program is available in downloadable PDF formats. This means your Device should support PDF files to be able to read it. Read more here...

Photography Explained Summary

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Author: Ken Duncan
Official Website: www.kenduncanphotographytips.com
Price: $19.97

Food Records and Diaries

Many participants will record everything at the end of the day due to the burden of recording in real time. Some protocols require participants to weigh and or measure foods before eating, while less stringent protocols use food models, photographs of food, measuring cups, and other aids to instruct respondents on estimating serving sizes. Often the food diary is carefully reviewed or documented by a trained dietitian to confirm food portion sizes, ingredients added in cooking and at the table (such as salt, oils, salad dressings, butter, and other condiments), and additional food details. However, this type of detailed review and documentation can add greatly to the participant burden since the minutiae required can seem overwhelming and time consuming to participants. In addition, this type of very detailed documentation adds to the overall cost of food record collection, but may not add significant or necessary food details. One study showed that when detailed, step-by-step...

Recording and Preservation of Zymograms

Another technique that allows the keeping of a permanent record of the results of each electrophoretic experiment is photography. The main advantage of photographs is their objectivity. They are relatively rapidly produced and easy to store. Stained cellulose acetate and starch gels are photographed with uniform lighting from above, while stained translucent agar overlays and polyacrylamide gels are photographed on a light box with lighting transmitted from below. Sometimes special conditions are required for photographing stained gels. For example, polyacryl-amide gels stained using the method of calcium phosphate precipitation should be photographed by reflected light against a dark background. In order to produce permanent records of indicator agar plates developed by the method of bioautography, an indirect lighting system is used that is a large version of the lighting system employed for photography of immunodiffusion plates. For photographing fluorescent bands (or...

Physical characteristics

A velvet worm (phylum Onychophora) on a forest floor in Ecuador. These creatures have been described as the missing link between annelids and anthropods. They live only in humid, dimly lit places, and are primarily nocturnal. (Photo by Dr. Morley Read Science Photo Library Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) A velvet worm (phylum Onychophora) on a forest floor in Ecuador. These creatures have been described as the missing link between annelids and anthropods. They live only in humid, dimly lit places, and are primarily nocturnal. (Photo by Dr. Morley Read Science Photo Library Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Information Management

It follows that three processes are always present in any investigation that can be improved by psychological study. First, the collection and evaluation of information derived from accounts of the crime. These accounts may include photographs or other recordings derived from the crime scene. There may also be records of other transactions such as bills paid or telephone calls made. Increasingly there are also records available within computer systems used by witnesses, victims or suspects. Often there will be witnesses to the crime or there will be results of the crime available for examination. There will transcripts of interviews or reports from various experts. Further there will be information in police and other records that may be drawn upon to provide indications for action. Once suspects are elicited there is further potential information about them either directly from interviews with them, or indirectly through reports from others. In addition there may be information from...

Causes and Types of Abnormal Pupils

Benign Anisocoria Usually a young adult with benign anisocoria reports a difference in pupil size. The longer it has been present, the less likely it is to be important. Ask for some old photographs of the patient, and examine them for pupil inequalities. The response to light and near in both eyes is normal, the difference in pupil size is no greater in dimness or light, mydriat-ics and miotics have a normal response, and there is no diagnosis.

Human factors in functional neuroimaging

For visual stimulation participants in PET and MRI scanners typically view a visual display either projected by an LCD display onto a screen in the magnet room, on a shielded in-scanner LCD display, or projected onto each eye with fiber optics or LCD screens mounted in goggles. The screen is often projected onto participants' retinas through small mirrors mounted in the head coil (in MRI). The visual angle of presentation is often limited to about 15 degrees. The contrast and display image quality should be assessed before imaging, particularly for tasks that require the viewing of photographs or other fine-grained visual discriminations.

An unkind note on sociobiology or evolutionary psychology

Many of the factors determining the frequency of use of contraceptives may also affect the waist to hip ratio. One way to avoid the bias would be to forbid the participants in our study to use contraceptives, but such an approach appears slightly unrealistic. In fact, the worldwide use of contraceptives has made impossible an unbiased study comparing the fertility of women with a waist to hip ratio of 0.70 to that of women with larger or smaller waist to hip ratios. A solution to this could be to use historical data from a time before contraceptives were introduced. Many countries have kept excellent birth registers for centuries. The only problem is that these birth registers do not normally include the waist to hip ratio. It is doubtful whether any do it. Perhaps some old photographs could be used for estimating this crucial ratio, but it is uncertain. In former times people had the unex-plainable habit of being dressed when they went to the photographer and on the occasions where...

Vitamin A Deficiency Infection and Mortality in Developing Countries A Recurring Theme

In 1965, the Western Hemisphere Nutrition Congress was organized by the American Medical Association, and W. Henry Sebrell (1901-1992), the former director of the National Institutes of Health, noted vitamin A deficiency is becoming increasingly recognized as a serious condition which is widespread in some parts of this hemisphere. Vitamin A deficiency accounts for widespread blindness or impaired vision and to a large extent contributes to high mortality (99). The Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense of the US National Institutes of Health conducted surveys in which data on vitamin A deficiency were collected. Vitamin A deficiency was considered a major health problem in many countries, including Jordan (100), Ethiopia (101), Vietnam (102), Thailand (103), Lebanon (104), and East Pakistan (105). These surveys defined vitamin A deficiency as a public health problem if more than 5 of the population had plasma or serum vitamin A concentration

Application of Image Analysis to the Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy

Of course, giving detailed solutions to all these problems would go over the scope of this paper. After having analyzed the nature of color in fundus photographs and after having given a short introduction into mathematical morphology, a nonlinear image-processing technique our algorithms are mainly based on, we will describe in detail some algorithms within this framework We will present an algorithm for image enhancement, algorithms for the detection of the vessels and the optic disk, and finally algorithms for the detection of characteristic lesions like microaneurysms and exudates. These segmentation algorithms are essential for computer-assisted screening and monitoring systems.

Introduction The Chicken as a Model Organism

The earliest recorded descriptions of the chicken as a model for biological processes are attributed to Hippocrates and Aristotle, who wrote about embryonic development in fertilized chicken eggs. Twentieth-century embryologists authored numerous treatises describing, diagramming, and providing detailed photographs of the chicken during development (Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951 Romanoff, 1960 Eyal-Giladi and Kochev, 1976), which promoted use of the chicken embryo as a model for study of mechanisms including morphogenesis neurogenesis somatogenesis limb, limb-digit and

Reproductive biology

Though the architectural diversity of the passerine nest certainly may have contributed to the enormous radiation of the order, nest site selection has played an equally important role. That many species are opportunistic in site selection probably has increased species survival. The wren family (Troglodyti-dae) illustrates both the diversity of nest types as well as the variety of sites. Cactus wrens (Campylorhynchus brunneicapittus) bury their football-shaped globular nests deep inside the thorns of cacti to discourage predators. Rock wrens (Salpinctes obsole-tus) build their nest in holes in the ground, the crevices of rocky outcrops, or similar small shelters. Nests are usually cup-shaped structures, made of grasses, rootlets, or bark, and lined with finer materials like animal hair or spider webs. House wrens (Troglodytes aedon) also make small, cup-shaped nests, but evidence of their creativity in site selection appears in photographs showing a house wren nest tucked inside an...

Enhancing Print Materials

Visual materials are useful to teach patients about health conditions that cannot be seen easily (for example, cholesterol in the blood vessels) and to demonstrate how to follow steps to complete a task. Visual materials should be tailored to reflect the culture, age, and background of the patient population and should be simple, recognizable, and clear. Photographs and visual materials depicting how to correctly engage in health activities can be very effective methods for delivering health information.

The Detection of the Optic Disk

The optic disk is the entrance of the optic nerve and the vessels into the retina. It is situated on the nasal side of the macula and it does not contain any photoreceptor It is also called the blind spot. In color fundus photographs, the optic disk appears as a big bright spot of circular or elliptical shape, interrupted by the outgoing vessels. Its size varies from patient to patient, but its diameter is always comprised between 40 and 60 pixels in 640 x 480 images. The optic disk is characterized by a strong contrast between outgoing vessels and the bright color of the optic disk itself.

Clinical features

Photographs of a patient with AIDS (a) shows perineal scarring after recurrent peri-anal infections and (b) a mouth ulcer on the hard palate, probably due to an opportunistic viral infection. Figure 11.13. Photographs of a patient with AIDS (a) shows perineal scarring after recurrent peri-anal infections and (b) a mouth ulcer on the hard palate, probably due to an opportunistic viral infection.

Self recognition and theory of mind

For example, she saw videotape in which one of her human caretakers was apparently locked in a cage and could not escape despite attempts to open the locked door. The videotape was stopped before the problem was solved, and Sarah was provided with photographs, one of which had the solution to the problem (in this case, a key for the padlock on the cage door). Sarah consistently chose the photograph with the appropriate solution to each problem. The interpretation of Sarah's behavior was that she was able to understand the state of the human in the videotape and she was able to choose the appropriate solution to the person's problem. Additional studies with Sarah suggested she could spontaneously show deception, withholding information or providing incorrect information about the location of a food item from a human who had previously failed to share food with her. In contrast, she provided information about the location of a food object to another human...

Threats to patient privacy in the health care setting

Robertson50 a British television actor, Gorden Kaye, had been seriously injured during the winter storms of 1990 and underwent brain surgery at Charing Cross Hospital in London. While he was recovering in a private room, two reporters from a tabloid newspaper gained access to the room, carried out an interview and took some photographs intended for publication. Kaye, however, had no recollection of the interview minutes after it had taken place and, in any event, was in no state to give valid consent to its use. Yet he was, in effect, unsuccessful in obtaining a remedy to prevent publication. In the absence of specific legal protection of privacy in the United Kingdom, Kaye relied on four different existing forms of action - libel, malicious falsehood, trespass to the person and passing off. Only malicious falsehood was considered to be of any relevance, but no damages were awarded and the injunction that was granted was limited to a prohibition on publishing anything which...

The Molecular Basis of Attenuation

Barrett kindly shared unpublished data on yellow fever vaccine and parental strain molecular comparisons and insights as to their relevance. Dr V. Deubel assisted in finding, photographs of Drs Mathis and Laigret in the Pasteur Institute archives. Dr F. Rey, Harvard Medical School, kindly provided the figure showing the location of yellow fever 17D virus mutations in the crystal structure of the flavivirus E protein dimer. The author is indebted to the Rockefeller Archive Center, North Tarrytown, NY and the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, Boston, MA for photographs of yellow fever researchers.

Research to Inform the Probative Prejudicial Debate

Vivid information may be more influential than pallid information because it evokes more emotional responses due to its greater ability to excite the imagination (Bell and Loftus, 1985). Those emotional responses may lead to subsequent biases in memory. For example, jurors in a civil case often take pain and suffering into account when determining damages. Compared to pallid testimony, vivid testimony may include more details about injury severity, which may increase the vividness of the evidence without changing its probative value. As a result, jurors may remember and use the details more than if they had not considered the vivid, emotion-provoking testimony. Two studies that investigated the impact of crime-scene photographs (Douglas, Lyon and Ogloff, 1997) and videotape re-enactments (Fishfader et al., 1996) found that mock jurors had a stronger emotional reaction to the demonstrative evidence than they did to oral testimony. Again, jurors' increased emotional reaction to vivid...

The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center

The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) is a set of services and tools of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). NARAC allows authorized emergency managers from local, state, and federal levels of government to request assistance in the event of a release of a radiological, chemical, or biological agent into the atmosphere. NARAC uses state-of-the art dispersion modeling tools developed at LLNL to predict downwind concentrations and even the health consequences of releases. It displays downwind concentrations graphically on maps and even aerial photographs so that responders can view the downwind concentrations at various landmarks such as roads, buildings, and stadiums. It staffs an emergency hotline 24 hours a day, seven days a week for emergency managers to call for assistance. NARAC also has other tools and services such as software for emergency managers to perform modeling locally, training on that software,...

Late Effects Of Treatment

Sequence of photographs showing a pre-chemother-apy mass (A), response 1 month following cisplatin-based chemotherapy (B), and further shrinkage of residual mass 1 year later (C). Figure 20-3. Sequence of photographs showing a pre-chemother-apy mass (A), response 1 month following cisplatin-based chemotherapy (B), and further shrinkage of residual mass 1 year later (C).

Handling Research Protocols

Many environmental researchers maintain a permanent file of photographs, slides, videos, and movies documenting places and people. This may not be a problem if the images do not distinguish faces. This is best judged by a research team or a panel of colleagues who are mindful of the need to respect the privacy and anonymity of the persons involved. Requesting permission of people to be filmed or interviewed is not always sufficient protection because they may not be able to anticipate the future applications of the research and give an informed consent. They may not understand the consequences of sharing their images or words with a wide audience, whether in print or in presentations.

Testing children with tasks developed for monkeys Use of the Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus

Figure 8.1 Testing apparatus for human subjects (A) and monkeys (B). For these photographs the vertical doors were raised higher than in normal testing, during which the doors were raised only about 10 cm. Figure 8.1 Testing apparatus for human subjects (A) and monkeys (B). For these photographs the vertical doors were raised higher than in normal testing, during which the doors were raised only about 10 cm.

Project Title Retinal Arteriolar Abnormalities And Cv Mortality

Summary The application describes a population-based case-cohort study to determine whether retinal arteriolar changes (generalized narrowing, focal narrowing and arterio-venous nicking) and retinopathy are associated with 10-year stroke-and ischemic heart disease-related mortality. The study population will be selected from participants of the Beaver Dam Eye Study, a well-characterized population of predominantly white persons aged 43-86 years at the baseline examination in 1988-90. Cases are defined as participants who have died from either stroke or ischemic heart disease since the baseline examination. Three participants per case will be selected from the cohort at baseline as controls, matched on gender and 5-year age intervals to cases. Focal arteriolar narrowing, arteriovenous nicking and retinopathy have been graded to baseline using a standardized photographic grading protocol. To evaluate generalized arteriolar narrowing, a method modified from the Atherosclerosis Risk in...

Satellite Imaging Quality and Access

The resolution of military reconnaissance satellites is classified, but civilian experts, such as those at the Federation of American Scientists, have opined that 10 cm per pixel would not be unrealistic. In addition, these satellites' sensors can also take pictures in a night sky. Access to such data is restricted however, if human intelligence ( humint'') suggested that some kind of incident would occur, governmental public health and or law enforcement could seek access to these birds.'' Photographs of use in detecting stricken people or animals are most likely taken using optical cameras, infrared sensors, and perhaps radar antennas using synthetic-aperture techniques, assuming that a high enough resolution is achieved.

Significance to humans

Naturally the shells were worn as displays of wealth, as can be seen in photographs by Edward Curtis as well as in the displays at such museums as the Museum of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, the Royal British Columbia Museum in Victoria, and the Field Museum in Chicago. As of 2003, scaphopod shells are frequently sold in shell shops and often made into jewelry.

Clinical Progression Of Ws

Figure 80.2 Clinical progression and features of Werner syndrome. A, B. Photographs of a Werner syndrome patient reported by Epstein et al. (1966) as Case 1, at ages 15 (A) and 48 (B). C, D. Photographs of a second patient at ages 13 (C) and 56 (D). Note in both instances the rounded face, sharp features, graying, thinning, and loss of scalp and eyebrow hair and, in D, the thin, atrophic forearms and elbow ulceration. Panels A and B are used with kind permission of Drs. George Martin and Nancy Hanson of the International Registry of Werner Syndrome, and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (B). The patient photographs in panels C and D were previously published in Martin (2005), and are used here courtesy of the patient's spouse with informed consent of the patient and of Drs. George Martin and Nancy Hanson, and Elsevier Press. Figure 80.2 Clinical progression and features of Werner syndrome. A, B. Photographs of a Werner syndrome patient reported by Epstein et al. (1966) as Case 1, at ages...

Complications after splenectomy and asplenism

Figure 11.16. (a) Patient with hepato-splenomegaly due to lymphoma with the outlines of the liver and spleen marked on the skin. and (b) a spleen resected for hypersplenism in a patient with lymphoma. (photographs courtesy of Mr T Davidson, UCL Medical School). Figure 11.16. (a) Patient with hepato-splenomegaly due to lymphoma with the outlines of the liver and spleen marked on the skin. and (b) a spleen resected for hypersplenism in a patient with lymphoma. (photographs courtesy of Mr T Davidson, UCL Medical School).

Evolution and systematics

Fossil hominid skeleton (Australopithecus afarensis) known as Lucy. Lucy was part of a rich find of fossils made in the Afar region of Ethiopia between 1973 and 1977. She dates from 3.3 million years ago and is widely accepted as the earliest link in the human record. The remains comprise 40 of an entire skeleton. (Photo by John Reader Science Photo Library Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Fossil hominid skeleton (Australopithecus afarensis) known as Lucy. Lucy was part of a rich find of fossils made in the Afar region of Ethiopia between 1973 and 1977. She dates from 3.3 million years ago and is widely accepted as the earliest link in the human record. The remains comprise 40 of an entire skeleton. (Photo by John Reader Science Photo Library Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) An illustration showing stages in the evolution of humans. At left, proconsul (23-15 million years ago) is depicted hypothetically as an African ape with both primitive and...

Patient History And Risk Factors

Prior to the initiation of treatment, a comprehensive ocular examination is required. This includes a complete ophthalmic history, with an emphasis on previous glaucoma diagnosis and therapy. The time of initial diagnosis, maximum IOP, recent IOP measurements, and corneal thickness should be noted. All previous glaucoma medications used, as well as their efficacy and side effects, must be recorded. Secondary causes of glaucoma (e.g., pigmentary, exfoliation, corticosteroid use, trauma, uveitis, or previous ocular surgery) should also be noted. Where available, copies of prior visual fields, optic nerve photographs, and nerve fiber layer measurements should be obtained. Systemic medical conditions and drug allergies must be noted. A family history of ocular diseases, including glaucoma and visual impairment, is important.

Anthropometry

Alternatively, precise physical measurements can be extrapolated from a standardized photograph in a technique called photogrammetric anthropometry. This method is costly, requiring standardized cameras and computarization, and again it is not an everyday, practical approach. Clinical geneticists frequently take photographs to document clinical features. A standard set includes face, front, and side total body, front, back, and side with palms forward close-up of hands and feet, and any other unusual features. However, without a reference standard of size in the photograph, they cannot be used for accurate measurements.

Dietary Recalls

Regardless of whether 24-h dietary recalls are done in-person or over the telephone, the protocols work best when interviewer scripts are standardized on a computer screen with direct data entry into a software program. It is very important that the interviewer be well trained since tone of voice, body posture (when inperson), and reactions to participant descriptions of foods consumed can influence the quality of the data, including omissions or phantom food additions (Conway et al, 2004). Sometimes interviewers need to redirect the conversation back to the structured questions, should the respondent deviate off-topic, which can be a problem when assessing specific population subgroups, such as the elderly. As with food records, the use of portion size estimate aides, such as life-size food models, photographs, or dimensional aides including rulers and measuring cups, increases the ability to estimate portion size thereby improving the reliability of the recall data (Pietinen et al,...

Trophozoite

Figure 11.2 Morphological features of Entamoeba histolytica. The main morphological features usually visible in the cyst and trophozoite stages are indicated in diagrammatic form. A stained cyst (iron-hematoxylin) is shown for comparison - with this stain the cyst wall is only visible as a clear ring around the cyst. Chromatoid bars are transient features of the cyst and consist of crystalline ribosomes. A live trophozoite photographed under DIC optics is also shown. The cytoplasm is filled with small food vacuoles, obscuring the nucleus. The pseudopod is clear and forms at the front edge of the moving cell. At the rear of the cell is the uroid, which is where undigested waste is expelled from the cell. Photographs courtesy of John Williams, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

Caenogastropods

Photo Macrograph of the species Xenophora pal-lidula, a member of the carrier shell family, named for cementing broken shells and stones to its own shell, a decorative variation on the theme of camouflage. (Photo by Science Photo Library Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Satellites

Space-based observation can detect the presence of deceased humans and animals, or degraded crops. A reconnaissance satellite photographs a scene of interest, and transmits its images in digital form to an interpretation center on the ground, either directly, or relayed by a communications satellite. The value of the images depends on the type of image, its resolution, and the time elapsed between the occurrence of an event and receipt of imagery by a trained analyst.

Time [sec

Distribution of field inhomogeneities. Koehler et al. (24) showed that this structure can be observed on T2* maps of rat hearts at 11.75 T, a field strength much higher than used in current clinical MRI scanners. In this study, an in-plane resolution of 78 m and a slice thickness of 250 m were achieved, which compares quite favorably with photographs of postmortem histological sections. The field inhomogeneities revealed by T2* did provide structural information about biological tissue (both normal and scar tissue), as shown in Fig. 17. Two obvious advantages of this NMR technique compared to conventional histology are its noninvasive nature and speed.

Chromosome

Another researcher invented a method of separating the chromosomes, but still he thought he saw twenty-four pairs. It was not until 1955, when an Indonesian named Joe-Hin Tjio travelled from Spain to Sweden to work with Albert Levan, that the truth dawned. Tjio and Levan, using better techniques, plainly saw twenty-three pairs. They even went back and counted twenty-three pairs in photographs in books where the caption stated that there were twenty-four pairs. There are none so blind as do not wish to see.1

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