Natural Scars Treatment Systems

Scar Solution Ebook By Sean Lowry

The Scar Solution book by Sean Lowry is specially designed and guaranteed to be one of the most effective skincare methods of the current century that helps to remove scars and brings about smooth skin. This treatment works to eliminate the scars even if they have been existing on your skin for a long time without the requirement for thousands of dollars spending on costly remedies. Sean tried out a number of scar treatment techniques on herself and finally figured out a solution which made her completely scar free. With a view to help and for the benefit of others who may be anguished or embarrassed of scars (on any part of their body) she has shared her unique scar removal method in Scar Solution ebook. This book contains a whole lot of information. Sean has undertaken in-depth research to develop this solution. In fact some the terms and references in the book are really technical which may be irrelevant to a layman. Also reading and absorbing all the information given in this ebook can be a little overwhelming. More here...

The Scar Solution Natural Scar Removal Summary


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Keloid scars

Keloid scars differ from hypertrophic scars in that they extend outside the area of the original wound. Keloid scars tend to develop more commonly in those of African ancestry, and in certain parts of the body, notably over the shoulders, upper back and sternum. They are prone to develop following ear piercing. Their development is reduced if continuous pressure is exerted on the wound during healing and for up to 12 months afterwards elastic compression devices must be individually designed. Radiotherapy to the healing wound also diminishes the laying down of collagen but the safety of this has been questioned. Triamcinolone, a potent steroid, can be injected through a fine needle into the scar until it pales, this is quite painful. The injection can be repeated after 6 weeks.

Alternatives To Standard Lifespan Assays

Another variation on high-throughput screening for long-lived yeast strains has been developed in which the number of chitin bud scars, a surface marker of repli-cative age, is quantified fluorescently by FACS (Chen et al., 2003). This study reported that expression of human ferritin light chain in yeast increases the number of cells with elevated bud scar counts. The authors failed to

Coreceptor antagonists

HIV-variants use either the CCR5- or the CXCR4-receptors for entry into the target cell. According to their receptor tropism, HIV variants are termed R5 if they use CCR5 as a co-receptor, whereas viruses with a preference for CXCR4 are termed X4-viruses. R5 viruses are viruses that predominantly infect macrophages (previously M-trope viruses) X4 viruses mainly infect T cells (previously T-trope viruses). Dual-trope viruses can use both receptors, and in addition, there are still mixed populations of R5- and X4 viruses. In most patients, R5 viruses are found in the early stages of infection the more virulent X4 viruses, which are probably able to infect a wider spectrum of cell types, first occur in the later stages. The change in the tropism is frequently a consequence of illness progression (Connor 1997, Scar-katti 1997). It is still not clear why this happens after several years of infection, although the tropism shift only needs a few small mutations. It is possible that R5 viruses...

CT Angiography and Perfusion

CBV and PS are the most meaningful parameters in evaluation of any type of tumors. CBF, TTP, and MTT are more of value in vascular-occlusive diseases. The major application for microvascular assessment using dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is differentiation of the most malignant region of tumor before conducting stereotactic biopsy. This may be particularly valuable in previously treated lesions in an effort to differentiate radiation necrosis, postsurgical scar tissue, and recurrent tumor. Additionally, tumor can be graded based on its blood volume and permeability. There is limited available data on CTP in brain tumor imaging. Data from MRP studies of brain tumors can be used as a means of extrapolating meaningful conclusions as well as predicting the role of CTP in future. Increased CBV and PS (or other parameters of permeability such as k-trans) are reliable indicators of high-grade brain tumors (17). However, differentiation between high-grade and low-grade tumors needs a threshold...

Imaging Treated Disease

Even in patients with advanced disease at diagnosis, excellent response to treatment can be achieved today. As a result, imaging is now frequently performed in patients who have undergone multiple courses of chemotherapy and multiple relapses. In such patients, the imaging findings are more complex and difficult to interpret than at the time of staging. For example, such patients also frequently have undergone previous surgery scarring in the lungs or in other tissues adds to the difficulties of identifying relapse. Furthermore, previous treatment with radiotherapy may not only cause radiation fibrosis in the treated tissue volume but may also influence the site of subsequent relapse. For example, in patients with stage I seminoma who have undergone radiotherapy to the para-aortic nodes (without pelvic node irradiation), the pelvis is a common site of relapse and therefore a group who should receive surveillance pelvic CT scans.50

Basic Endoscopic Procedures

The majority of posttreatment esophageal strictures in our patients are secondary to radiation or due to scarring of the surgical anastomosis. Every effort is made to rule out residual or recurrent tumor at the site of stricture prior to embarking on stricture dilation. We dilate strictures only if the patient has significant dysphagia that prevents adequate nutrition and the stricture is less than 10 mm in diameter. Both bougies (Savary-Guillard dilators) and through-the-scope balloons are used for stricture dilation. The through-the-scope balloons are more convenient because they do not require fluoroscopic guidance. However, in patients with long strictures that cannot be traversed by endoscope or with tight strictures in which the lumen cannot be seen, a guidewire is used with fluoroscopic assistance. Balloon or Savary dilation over the guidewire is performed with fluoroscopic guidance. Dilation is usually limited to no more than 3 sizes in a single session, and patients are...

Suggested Readings

Bouvet M, Mansfield PF, Skibber JM, et al. Clinical, pathologic, and economic parameters of laparoscopic colon resection for cancer. Am J Surg 1998 176 554-558. Hughes ES, McDermott FT, Polglase AI, et al. Tumor recurrence in the abdominal wall scar tissue after large-bowel cancer surgery. Dis Colon Rectum 1983 26 571-572.

In Situ Molecular Tools For Biocontrol Strains

As the biological strains of Trichoderma are difficult to distinguish from the indigenous strains of Trichoderma found in the field, Hermosa et al. (2001) developed a method to monitor these strains when applied to natural pathosystems. To this end they used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to estimate genetic variation among sixteen strains of the species T. asperellum, T. atroviride, T. harzianum, T. inhamatum, and T. longibrachiatum. Analysis of the respective RAPD products generated were used to design specific primers. Diagnostic PCR performed using these primers specifically identified one of their strains (T. atroviride 11), and clearly distinguished this strain from other closely related Tricho-derma isolates, showing that SCAR (sequence-characterised amplified region) markers can be successfully used for identification purposes.

Surgery 421 Cosmetic Effects

Most apparent but not always sufficiently addressed are the cosmetic effects of surgery. Patients may be embarrassed by their own distress from a seemingly minor problem with an otherwise good outcome and consequently may not bring forth their concerns. Nonetheless, visible scars from cancer surgery can result in some cases in social isolation. Other patients find the sight and smell of an ostomy to be repugnant and greatly overestimate how much it is apparent to others around them. It is incumbent on providers caring for these patients to explore these issues with them to ensure that they are as satisfied as possible with long-term cosmesis. If distress is identified, they should look for ways to optimize the cosmetic result, and where this is not possible, try to help the patient best cope with their situation.

Cell Wall Cell Surface Morphology And Morphological Variation

The major component (80 -90 ) of the cell wall is polysaccharide. This includes 3-glucans, mannoproteins, and chitin. 3-Glucan is a glucose homopolymer. In Saccharomyces, one finds (3-1,3 straight chains up to 1500 residues long with some (3-1,6 branches. These long polymers are intertwined to form microfibrils that are interwoven into the meshwork that makes the basic support structure of the cell wall, much like the steel rods in reinforced concrete. Imbedded into this meshwork are the mannoproteins or mannans. These are secreted proteins with large, highly branched, covalently bound carbohydrate side groups consisting mostly of mannose residues but also including glucose and N-acetylglucosamine residues. Some of these glycoproteins are also attached to lipids of the plasma membrane via a GPI anchor (glycosyl phosphatidylinositol) at the C-terminus of the protein. Cell wall proteins include the agglutinins and flocculins that play important roles in cell adhesion. Enzymes such as...

Introduction food safety and quality

Believe to stand for quality has become more closely aligned to the supermarkets' own definitions of quality, of which food safety is a part. Consequently, as greater numbers of consumers shop in supermarkets, suppliers are forced to adjust their own understanding of quality in line with that of supermarkets if they are to stay in business. At one time variation in the size and shape of a given fruit or vegetable, or the presence of a scar or blemish, did not denote poor quality. The apples placed in a bag by a greengrocer were all allowed to be a little different. Potatoes, carrots and parsnips came in different sizes and with residues of earth that indicated their origins as products of the land. In the modern consumer food marketplace the supermarkets have taken control of the education of consumers in matters of food. Now fruit and vegetables of the same kind have to appear all the same size, colour and shape, and with no obvious defects, if consumer expectations are to be met and...

Vitamin A Deficiency Infection and Mortality in Developing Countries A Recurring Theme

In 1965, the Western Hemisphere Nutrition Congress was organized by the American Medical Association, and W. Henry Sebrell (1901-1992), the former director of the National Institutes of Health, noted vitamin A deficiency is becoming increasingly recognized as a serious condition which is widespread in some parts of this hemisphere. Vitamin A deficiency accounts for widespread blindness or impaired vision and to a large extent contributes to high mortality (99). The Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense of the US National Institutes of Health conducted surveys in which data on vitamin A deficiency were collected. Vitamin A deficiency was considered a major health problem in many countries, including Jordan (100), Ethiopia (101), Vietnam (102), Thailand (103), Lebanon (104), and East Pakistan (105). These surveys defined vitamin A deficiency as a public health problem if more than 5 of the population had plasma or serum vitamin A concentration

Clinical Manifestations

Because VZV becomes latent in cranial nerve, dorsal root, and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuroaxis, the virus can manifest anywhere on the body. Typically, the activated virus causes a prodrome consisting of skin sensitivity and mild-to-severe radicular pain, and after five days, a rash appears. The pain is associated with itching and dysesthesia. As with HSV-1, VZV infection decreases sensation in the affected dermatome, yet the affected skin is exquisitely sensitive to touch. The rash may continue to produce pustules that lead to crusting and ulceration. In many affected patients, healing is delayed beyond two weeks and is accompanied by increased skin pigmentation and scarring. Lesions can erupt outside the affected dermatome but rarely cross the midline and are not clinically significant. Distribution of 10 or more lesions outside a single dermatome suggests early evidence of viral dissemination. The term zoster sine herpete is used to describe VZV that is reactivated...

Pneumocystis pneumonia PCP

The majority of patients diagnosed with PCP are not pre-treated with antiretroviral drugs, even today, and many of these do not know of their HIV infection status (or do not want to). PCP is a life-threatening disease, which should be treated by an HIV specialist. It often requires mechanical ventilation and still continues to have a high fatality rate. Older patients have a particularly high mortality risk (Benfield 2001). The relapses that were frequently seen in the past have become rare, thanks to HAART and prophylaxis. Scar tissue formation may result in susceptibility to recurring pneumothoraces. PCP may also rarely occur in relation to an immune reconstitution syndrome (see below).

Mucocutaneous Manifestations

The mucocutaneous manifestations of CS are the most common, yet the most difficult to recognize, with an estimated penetrance of 99 by the end of the third decade (17). The characteristic skin lesions of CS are trichilemmomas and papillomatous papules (25). Trichilemmomas are hamartomas of the infundibulum of the hair follicle and are characteristically found at or near the hairline while papillomatous papules are condyloma-like lesions occurring frequently on the face, hands, feet, or oral mucosa. It is not uncommon to see papillomatous papules proliferate at pressure points particularly on the palmar and plantar surfaces. Additional cutaneous manifestations include acral keratoses, small punctate lesions commonly seen on the palmar surface of the hands, which are often associated with a central depression or pit. Lipomas are a feature, but are seen more commonly in BRRS (14). Patients appear predisposed to excessive scarring, even cheloid formation, at the site of traumatic or...

Clinical features

Photographs of a patient with AIDS (a) shows perineal scarring after recurrent peri-anal infections and (b) a mouth ulcer on the hard palate, probably due to an opportunistic viral infection. Figure 11.13. Photographs of a patient with AIDS (a) shows perineal scarring after recurrent peri-anal infections and (b) a mouth ulcer on the hard palate, probably due to an opportunistic viral infection.

Feeding ecology and diet

All species of honeyeaters consume varying amounts of nectar and invertebrates, especially insects. Honeyeaters visit a wide range of native and exotic flowers, with eucalyptus, banksias, bottlebrushes, grevilleas, and mistletoes being among the most popular. Sugarbirds favor proteas. Other sweet food sources include honeydew from bugs (Hemiptera), manna (sugary exudate from damaged foliage), and lerp (the sugary coating on scale insects of the family Psyllidae). Hon-eyeaters also consume sap exuding from scars on branches caused by gliding possums. Smaller honeyeaters may consume tiny insects that they capture in flight, and they also glean caterpillars and beetles from foliage. Strong-billed (Melithrep-tus validirostris) and white-eared honeyeaters (Lichenostomus leucops) frequently probe bark for insects and honeydew. Spiders are also taken, and more unusual foods include crustaceans and small lizards. A few larger species prey on eggs and nestling birds. Miners (Manorina) and...

Adapterbased Targeting

An alternative to the chemical conjugate approach was developed by creating a single recombinant fusion molecule formed by the soluble extracellular form of CAR (sCAR) fused to epidermal growth factor (EGF) (53). Increased reporter gene expression was achieved in several EGFR-overex-pressing cancer cell lines compared with untargeted Ad or EGFR-negative cells in vitro. EGF-directed targeting to EGFR-positive cells was shown to be dependent on cell surface EGFR density. Initial proof-of-concept studies were followed up with construction of adenoviruses coding for the adapter and capable of achieving production and secretion of sCAR-EGF in human cells. Further, the effect of such retarget ing on the oncolytic potency of replication competent agents was tested in vitro and in vivo (54). To improve Ad-sCAR-li-gand complex stability, a trimeric sCAR-fibitin-anti-erbB2 single-chain antibody (sFv) adapter molecule was developed (55). The adapter displayed increased affinity to the Ad fiber...

Incontinential Pigmenti and the NEMO Gene at Xq28

Familial IP (MIM 308310) is a rare X-linked dominant disorder affecting approx 1 in 50,000 newborns. It is characterized by abnormalities of the skin, hair, nails, teeth, eyes, and central nervous system, with a distinctive pattern of hyperpigmentation and dermal scarring (25). Affected males die in utero, whereas affected females have extremely skewed X-inactivation owing to the death of cells carrying the mutation on the active X chromosome. The disorder is caused by defects in the NEMO gene that encodes a regulator of the NF-kB signal pathway (9,26). The gene spans 23 kb and consists of 10 exons. A recurrent 10-kb deletion that removes exons 4-10 accounts for 70-80 of the mutations identified in IP patients (9,26). This deletion is flanked at the ends by two identical 878-bp MER67B repeats (termed int3h repeats), one located within intron 3 of the gene and the other in the 3' flanking region (Fig. 1D1). In most of the de novo cases, the deletion occurred in the paternal germline,...

Doubletargeted Adenoviruses

Transductional and transcriptional targeting can be combined to create double-targeted viruses. Conceivably, this approach could be synergistic with regard to safety and efficacy. Initial proof of concept was achieved by using a pulmonary vascula-ture specific promoter and a lung endothelium-targeted adaptor strategy (56). Impressively, the tumor-to-liver ratio of gene expression was increased 300,000-fold when both targeting modalities were used. Also, double targeting for ovarian cancer has been achieved in vitro and in vivo (89). Transductional targeting with a sCAR-fibritin-antiErbB2-sFv adapter was able to increase gene transfer to target cells while reducing transduction of nontarget cells. When combining transcriptional targeting with the SLPI promoter, an increase in selectivity was seen. Also, the transductional targeting increased the level of SLPI-mediated transgene expression in target cells, thereby compensating for the lower gene expression typically seen with TSPs.

Molecular Targets Used For The Detection Of Fungi

Regions the rRNA gene cluster are targeted. Other targets could also be used, including genes of the ergosterol biosynthesis (Morace et al. 1997), translation elongation factor genes (Vaitilingom et al. 1998), and the chitin synthase gene (Jordan 1994). For specific detection of a single genus or species, more variable regions of the genome, e.g., spacer regions of the rRNA gene cluster, or sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers should be targeted. For the detection of mycotoxin producing fungi, sequences of the mycotoxin biosynthetic genes are the best targets. In the following, the targets used for molecular detection of fungi are dealt with, with special emphasis on mycotoxin producing fungi.

Management of intercostal catheters

After a thoracotomy, intercostal catheters are generally placed to lie at the apex and base of the chest with the intention of keeping the pleural space empty. If an intercostal catheter has to be inserted without an operation, then the area of choice is in the axilla where there are no muscles covering the chest wall and the scar is cosmetically acceptable. This can be done under local anaesthetic remembering that the most painful layers are the skin and pleura.

Integrins Nucleate the Formation of Multi Protein Complexes

The initial steps in cell migration require the formation of protrusive structures (lamellipodia) at the leading edge of the cell and the stabilization of the protrusion by newly formed adhesion complexes. Cell protrusions are regulated by the activity of surface receptors and Rho family GTPases Cdc42 and Rac 17 . Actin polymerization at the cell front is regulated by Cdc42 and Rac via their interaction with members of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) Scar1 superfamily 18 . Binding of Cdc42 Rac to WASP Scar proteins activates the Arp2 3 complex 19 , triggering its binding to the sides of preexisting actin filaments and stimulating new filament formation, which results in branched actin networks 20 . The formation of the branched actin network serves to drive the forward extension of the cell membrane, leading to the formation of lamellipodia 20,21 .

Residual Masses And Postchemotherapy Radiation

Especially with cases of large-volume seminoma, it is common to find a residual mass on scanning the patient after a course of chemotherapy. However, approximately 90 of these masses do not contain residual malignancies and appear to be fibrotic remnants (Figure 20-3).30,31 Attempted resection can be hazardous because of extensive dense scar tissue involving the great vessels and retroperitoneal tissues. The analysis from the Memorial Sloan-Ketter-ing Cancer Center suggested that there was a higher risk of residual malignancy if the residual mass was 3 cm in diameter.32 This suggestion has led, at some centers, to a policy of particularly close surveillance or adjuvant radiotherapy for this subset of patients.33 However, other investigators have not found that recurrence was more likely when the residual mass was 3 cm in diameter.34 Furthermore,

Etiology and Pathogenesis

Historically, cases of EGGCTs have been described in the literature at least since the 1930s.1 Through the years, there has been a debate as to whether these EGGCTs represent true primary lesions originating outside the gonads or are secondary metastases from occult testicular lesions. In 1961, Azzopardi and Hoffbrand published histologic evidence of testicular scars in 17 patients with presumed EGGCTs and hypothesized that these scars represented regression of primary testicular neoplasms.2 The argument that EGGCTs represent metastases is based on numerous case reports of microscopic intratesticular tumors or burnt-out scars discovered on histologic examination of testes from patients with presumed primary EGGCTs and normal testes on palpation.3-7 The majority of these A second line of evidence is that many patients with disease limited to the mediastinum or retroperi-toneum have been cured after local therapy alone.10 Only rarely are testicular recurrences reported, and most of...

Prevalence and Incidence

Worldwide, there are an estimated 140 million preschool children and 7.2 million pregnant women who have vitamin A deficiency (597). In low-income countries worldwide, there are an estimated 453,000 children with blindness or severe visual impairment, and 200,000 have corneal scarring attributed mostly to measles and vitamin A deficiency (2). There is a close synergism between measles and vitamin A deficiency that can result in blindness, and of an estimated 30 million children who develop measles each year, there are an estimated 15,000-60,000 children who become blind (598). Others have suggested that there may be about 350,000 children who go blind from vitamin A deficiency annually (599).

Physical characteristics

Very fine like growth lines or broad and strongly raised off the surface. The shell aperture is typically oval. The inner surface of the shell bears a horse-shaped muscle scar that opens anteriorly where the head is located. The head has one pair of tentacles and the mouth opens ventrally for feeding on the substrate. Inside the mouth is the radula. The patellogastropod radula has very few robust teeth, which are brown in color because of the presence of iron compounds. Patellogastropods have two gill configurations in the Patel-lina, the gill is located around the edge of the foot and extends around the aperture, while in the Acmaeina, the gill is located over the head, as it is in other gastropod species.

Pulmonary complications Bacterial pneumonia

Bacterial pneumonia occurs more often in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative patients, and, like PCP, leaves scars in the lung. This often results in a restriction of pulmonary function which goes on for years (Alison 2000). Although bacterial pneumonia occurs in the early stages of HIV infection, the risk grows along with increasing immunosuppression. A case of bacterial pneumonia significantly worsens the long-term prognosis of the patient (Osmond 1999). Thus, contracting bacterial pneumonia more than once a year is regarded as AIDS defining. The introduction of HAART went hand in hand with a significant reduction in the occurrence of bacterial pneumonia (Jeffrey 2000).

Siterelated aspects

In cases of perineal locations, surgery will largely depend on whether or not a colostomy has to be performed. If intestinal resection requires a colostomy the decision is made automatically. More troublesome are the perineal infections where ongoing fecal drainage are at odds with wound management. Therefore colostomy is always to be considered as soon as an infection reaches the anal area58. The colostomy must be carried out in a healthy area to make sure neither the laparotomy scar nor the colostomy orifice become a causeway for the infection. The colic and rectal segment beyond the ostomy must be thoroughly emptied and cleaned. During the same surgical procedure, extensive drainage of the perineal infection must be carried in the same way, but quite separately from the colostomy.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma of skin is more directly related to ultraviolet radiation than basal cell carcinoma. Other predisposing factors or conditions include radiation, chemical exposure (arsenic and organic hydrocarbons), burn scars and non-healing venous ulcers. Verrucous carcinoma is a low-grade or well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of skin or mucus membrane that presents as an exophytic ver-rucous, keratotic mass that grows slowly. It may involve the skin as well as the mucus membrane of the oral cavity (Fig. 20.12). Superficial biopsy typically shows hyperkeratoses and histological evidence of malignancy can only be diagnosed from the entire excised mass. Therefore, treatment by surgical excision should be undertaken based on clinical correlation. Squamous cell carcinoma should be treated by excision with at least 1 cm margins and clinically detected regional metastasis should be treated by radical or modified radical neck dissection.

Salivary gland tumours

Benign and malignant salivary gland tumours can arise from the parotid gland, submandibular gland and rarely the sublingual gland. They typically present as a parotid or sub-mandibular mass. Approximately 10 of parotid and 50 of submandibular gland tumours are malignant. Both ultrasound and FNA are useful in delineating the nature of the salivary gland lesions. A CT scan may be required to evaluate a complex mass such as deep lobe tumours and invasive tumours. Common benign tumours are pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumour (papillary cystadenoma lym-phomatosum). Pleomorphic adenoma is usually rubbery firm in consistency and may recur if not excised with an adequate margin. Warthin's tumour may be bilateral and tends to occur in the elderly. Malignant salivary gland tumours include mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, squamous cell cacinoma and lymphoma. Metastases to the parotid gland can originate...

Immediate complications

This is usually a result of an unrecognized compartment syndrome where there is alternate necrosis of the muscles within a compressed myofascial compartment. Once the muscle tissue is necrotic, it is replaced by scar tissue. As the scar tissue matures it contracts, resulting in joint contractures and deformity across which the muscles act. This is most commonly seen in children after distal humeral fractures wherein the forearm muscles are commonly affected resulting in clawing of the hand, though it may also affect myofascial compartments in the leg, foot and very rarely in the thigh. Treatment in chronic cases is very difficult. It often requires prolonged physiotherapy with serial splintage to try and correct some of the residual deformity. However, in the established case, surgical release of the scarred muscles popularly known as the muscle slide procedures, with or without tenotomies, and joint contractures may be appropriate. To restore active function in the joints, tendon...

Clinical examination

An accurate and thorough clinical examination of the patient in general and also the particular joint or joints involved is essential to determine the cause of an arthropa-thy. Clinical examination involves assessing the alignment and stability of the joint and associated soft-tissue swellings, including any effusion within the joint. Scars or sinuses suggesting surgery and infections must be noted. It is important to palpate for local temperature (warm in case of inflammatory pathologies and hot in acute infections) any bony areas for tenderness and to assess the range of both active and passive movements. General examination must assess other joints involved as well as the musculoskeletal system, looking for signs that may confirm an inflammatory or infective arthropathy. The format most popular in orthopaedics is took, feel, move (inspection, palpation, movements) followed by special tests for specific pathologies suspected, neurological assessment, vascular assessment, assessment...

Surgical considerations

Limb amputations are generally carried out with a tourniquet however, prior to stump closure, the tourniquet must be released to make sure that all bleeding vessels have been carefully ligated. Nerves must be carefully divided prox-imally so that they can retract into the soft tissues and will not be irritated by the scar at the tip of the stump thus neuromatous pain is avoided. In the closed amputation technique, which is used particularly in diabetics, skin flaps must be repaired without undue tension so as to avoid the possibility of postoperative sepsis and dehiscence of the stump.

Biochemistry And Pathology Of Macular Degeneration

A result of hypoxia and inflammation of the RPE. Even in the absence of CNV, the changes to the RPE Bruch's membrane and the outer plexiform layer of the retina result in scar formation at that level with concomitant damage to the neurosensory outer retina, termed geographic atrophy, which can also result in loss of central vision.

Acne acne vulgaris OMIM 604324

Acne is an inflammatory dermatosis, the genetics of which have not been well studied. Acne is characterized by the development of inflammatory papules, comedones and pustules, leading on to possible disfiguring scarring. At a minimal level of severity, acne is ubiquitous in adolescence, and only a minority of cases will develop scarring or have a clinical course running into the second quarter of life.

Myoblasts and Treatment of Heart Failure

The implantation of skeletal myoblasts into the heart after a myocardial infarct seems to be a further promising possibility for clinical use 205-210 . Since cardiomyocytes cannot regenerate, the loss of injured myocardial tissue is irreversible and the wounds are healed by replacement with scar tissue. Among the cell types that could be transplanted to injured hearts in order to replace scar tissue or to prevent scarring, skeletal myoblasts are the cells of choice for several reasons. Although cardiomyocytes appear to be more eligible, the fact that they, in contrast to skeletal myoblasts, do not proliferate in culture makes their use impractical. Skeletal myoblasts have the advantage that high numbers of autologous donor myoblasts can be cultured, allowing reparation of myocardial infarcts in humans. The implanted cells differentiate into fully developed, slow twitch fibers that not only prevent the formation of scar tissue, but also have the capacity to perform cardiac work. This...

TABLE 1 Mechanisms of Hoarseness

Primary treatment of Wegener's granulomatosis is pharmacologic. Steroids are usually effective. Second-line therapy includes cytotoxic drugs. Medical therapy may keep the disease in check, but often the disease progresses. In systemic disease, death results from pulmonary and or renal failure. Laryngeal stenosis may require endoscopic excision to relieve airway obstruction but may be complicated by scarring, with further voice impairment and recurrent obstruction (Fig. 1). Tracheotomy is an alternate way of relieving obstruction. Surgical management of stenosis and scarring may be attempted when there is no active disease, but it may be complicated by reactivation (1).

Determining diffusivitiesoffruits

There have been several reports on determiningthediffusivitiesofbulkyplant organs. Burg and Burg (1965) defined a resistancefactor ( )whichcouldbeesti-mated for bulky plant organs, in to the ratio of production of carbondioxideandethyleneinthesteady state. They estimated that more than 60 ofgasexchangetakes placethrough the stem scar in tomatoes. But this resistantfactorisonlyan empiricalvalue without conventional dimensions and is notconstantwithchangesinthesurface to volume ratio. Cameron and Yang (1982) measured the efflux of a metabolic inert gas, ethane, which is neither produced nor metabolized to a significant degree by the tissue. It was shown that over97 ofgasexchangeintomatofruits occurs through the stem scar. However, the measurement of ethane efflux introduces several uncertainties because they did not measure the diffusivities of exocarp, pericarp and stem scar separately. Wax undoubtedly serves as a gas barrier to oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor and other...

Pemphigus And Pemphigoid

Diagnosis is established by immunofluorescence to detect the antibodies causing the lesions. Biopsy is often negative because it shows nonspecific necrosis, particularly in the center of ulcerated lesions. Serology is sometimes helpful. Before the advent of drug treatment, pemphigus vulgaris was fatal in 99 of cases, but with treatment including dapsone, steroids, and azathioprine, mortality is 5 to 15 . The mucosal lesions of pemphigus and pemphigoid generally respond well to medical management, but untreated lesions may become infected and cause scarring sufficient to obstruct the airway.

Infectious Diseases Mycobacterial Infection

Complications related to cervical mycobacterial infections are few. Uncommonly, soft-tissue breakdown may occur to the extent that wide debridement is required, resulting in significant fibrosis and scarring. In the immuno-competent patient, response to therapy is generally favorable, with a low incidence of recrudescence. Immunocompromised patients may respond slowly or not at all to therapy and are at risk for recurrence. Mycobacterial infections are discussed in more detail in Chapter 12.

Vesicoureteric reflux

Dominant inheritance with variable penetrance). The oblique course of an intravesical, submucosal ureteral segment normally functions as a valve, failure of which (e.g. a short ureteral tunnel) results in reflux. Vesicoureteric reflux is only harmful when complicated by infection. Repeated urinary infection is associated with renal scarring, loss of renal function and eventually hypertension and renal failure.

Complications And Prognosis

SJS usually lasts four to six weeks and can be complicated by electrolyte imbalance, dehydration, secondary infections, and severe pneumonitis. Large areas of denudation can cause scarring leading to contractures. Ocular complications include corneal scarring, pseudomembrane formation leading to immobility of the eyelids, and lacrimal duct scarring. Lesions of the oral mucosa usually heal without complications. Esophageal or anal involvement can lead to strictures, and vaginal or urethral mucosal lesions can cause stenosis.

Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid

MMP is a chronic autoimmune mucocutaneous disease in which autoantibodies directed at structural proteins of the hemidesmosome destroy the epithelial-connective tissue attachment at the level of the basement membrane, producing a subepithelial separation (24,25). The protein targets of the autoantibodies include BP-1, BP-2, and laminin-5 (epiligrin), all components of the epithelial anchoring apparatus. MMP is a generalized term for a group of closely related disease processes (26). The term oral mucous membrane pemphigoid is used if the lesions are confined to the oral mucosa (Fig. 31). The term cicatricial pemphigoid is applied to patients with involvement of the ocular mucosa, which produces scarring and may result in blindness. The term bullous pemphigoid is the untoward effects of treatment. Involvement of the ocular mucosa in cicatricial pemphigoid produces scarring and may result in blindness. The lesions may remain localized to the gingiva for a period but generally progress...

Medial Margin Of Right Template Rplnd

Retrocrural Lymph Node Right

Sometimes, a precaval metastasis invades the inferior vena cava and it becomes necessary to resect the vein, with a patch repair, during RPLND (Figure 11-9). Also, the left renal vein may be adherent to residual disease or scar tissue at the point of entry of the spermatic vein a wedge resection is usually sufficient (Figure 11-10). Last, but not least, a laparoscopic RPLND can also be performed in selected cases of residual teratoma.30

Cutaneous Bullous Diseases

Many cutaneous disorders have associated esophageal involvement. The more common of these disorders include epidermolysis bullosa, cicatricial pemphigoid (CP), lichen planus, and pemphigus vulgaris. Epidermolysis bullosa is a relatively rare cutaneous disease mediated by circulating IgG antibodies directed against type VII collagen. Clinically, patients develop intradermal blistering lesions with scarring at sites of trauma (hands and feet are most common). The proximal third of the esophagus, consisting of stratified squamous epithelium, is at risk. Strictures can occur due to concentric scarring from large blisters. Treatment is dilation. There is reported treatment of severe cases by colonic interposition free tissue grafting, to replace the stratified squamous epithelium of the proximal third of the esophagus (25). Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is another autoimmune blistering disease, which generally affects patients over the age of 60. It is the most common of the bullous cutaneous...

Management Of Scrotal Contamination

If the pathology shows stage I nonseminoma, the previous scrotal scar should be widely excised at the time of retroperitoneal node dissection, along with the remaining spermatic cord. If a node dissection is not planned, this excision should be performed as a separate procedure. In the case of gross scrotal contamination, a formal hemiscro-tectomy should be performed.

Saprotrophs of Attached and Fallen Wood and Litter

The decay process often commences in the standing tree, in attached lower or stressed branches (Rayner and Boddy 1988). Fungi may gain access either through wounds, tissues following microbial or stress damage or via lenticels or leaf scars. Studies have indicated that pioneer species such as Stereum gausapatum, Phlebia rufa, Phellinus ferreus, Exidia glandulosa, and Vuilleminia comedens in oak or Daldinia concentrica, Hypoxylon rubiginosum, and Peniophora limitata in ash, can colonize living or recently dead wood. The host tree may instigate a response to this invasion, by accelerating localized premature heartwood tissue formation, which contributes to restriction of the invading front. The identification of massive decay columns comprising a single individual extending for several meters along branches known to have been dead for a single growing season only, indicated the involvement of latent invaders (see Endophytes ) initially distributed within functional sapwood as dormant...

Cervical Complications

Wound dehiscence is related to inadequate planning of the incision or to infection. Proper placement of the incision should be planned with the patient sitting in the upright position. The location of the incision and its length should be sufficient to allow adequate exposure to minimize the need for vigorous wound retraction intraoperatively. The skin flaps should be carefully protected from retractors or cautery. We usually fix wet towels to the skin flaps to protect the skin throughout the operation and to avoid direct traction over the skin edge. Crosshatch marks should be avoided to improve the cosmetic results and to avoid additional scarring. Methylene blue or surgical pen marks allow proper realignment of long incisions during skin closure without the risk of additional scars.

Xerophthalmia and Keratomalacia

Keratomalacia Children

Classified in order of severity from night blindness (XN) to corneal ulceration and kera-tomalacia that involves one-third of the cornea or greater (X3B). A corneal scar (XS) is not a sign of active vitamin A deficiency. Xerophthalmic fundus (XS) is usually considered to be a rare condition. Fig. 14. Corneal scar. (Courtesy of Task Force Sight and Life.) Fig. 14. Corneal scar. (Courtesy of Task Force Sight and Life.) 4.1.8. Corneal Scar The sequelae to corneal ulcer and keratomalacia include the formation of a corneal scar or leucoma (Fig. 14). Corneal scarring can arise from causes other than vitamin A deficiency, such as following trauma and infectious keratitis unrelated to vitamin A, thus, the interpretation of corneal scarring must be made with caution in surveys. The corneal scarring that occurs with measles and vitamin A deficiency cannot be distinguished from corneal scarring from vitamin A deficiency without measles. Many surveys of the causes

HIVassociated nephropathy HIVAN

Experience with other FSGN-forms has shown that only early intervention with HAART - before scarring of the glomeruli occurs due to the underlying disease -has a chance of success. This calls for a rapid reaction HIVAN is independent from CD4 cell count and viral load must be treated The use of components of antiretroviral therapy should take into consideration the different means of renal elimination (adaptation of the dosing). ACE-inhibitors (captropil 6.25 to 25 mg bid, then change to a longer-term effective preparation such as enalapril 5 mg) should be added (see also Table 2). The use of steroids is the subject of controversial discussion (1 mg kg KG day for 2 to 11 weeks), but is favoured in the USA alongside initiation of a HAART, particularly in cases which take a course similar to lupus (Haas 2005, Gupta 2005).

Lymph Node Metastases

Staging CT scans are reviewed to identify nodal disease, lung metastases, and (in patients with advanced disease) bloodborne metastases in other sites. It is important that the radiologist interpreting the examination should know the side of the primary tumor in order to give appropriate weight to any equivocal findings. Edema and scarring in the groin are usually obvious on CT. The detection of nodal disease relies on size criteria, and over the last two decades there has been much discussion regarding the appropriate threshold for the upper limit of normal for retroperitoneal nodes. There is now, however, a general consensus that nodes 8 mm in

Reactive astrogliosis

Formation of protective glial scar Figure 9.1 Stages of reactive astrogliosis. Insults to the CNS trigger release of numerous factors that interact with astroglial cells and trigger reactive astrogliosis, which is generally represented by hypertrophy and proliferation of astrocytes. Astrogliosis ultimately ends up in complete substitution of previously existing tissue architecture with a permanent glial scar (see the text for detailed explanation) at a distance from the primary lesion. Astrocytes located immediately around the damaged zone undergo a robust hypertrophy and proliferation, which ultimately ends up in complete substitution of previously existing tissue architecture with a permanent glial scar, this process is called anisomorphic (i.e. changing the morphology) astrogliosis. Reactive astrocytes in these areas produce chondroitin and keratin, which inhibit axonal regeneration, and thus prevent nerve processes from entering the damaged zone. Reactive astroglia also release...

Developmental function neuronal guidance

After neurones reach their final sites, they extend axons, which in some cases grow for considerable distances and have to cross the brain midline (decussate) to reach their synaptic targets. Channels formed by astrocytes provide a mechanical and guidance substrate for axon growth. In the corpus callosum, for example, astrocytes form a bridge (the glial sling) that connects left and right sides of the developing telencephalon. The ability of astrocytes to support axon growth decreases with age embryonic astrocytes strongly support axon growth, whereas mature astrocytes inhibit axon growth - hence, the astroglial scar that forms following damage to the adult CNS is a major barrier to axon regeneration. Astrocytes produce a number of membrane bound and extracellular matrix molecules that serve as molecular cues for axon growth. These are generally considered to act by activating receptors on axonal growth cones to regulate process outgrowth for example, N-cadherins and fibroblast growth...

Zootermopsis laticeps

Kings and queens fly in the middle of the night from late June through early August. Mated pairs look for tree scars, knotholes, or small pockets of rot or other wounds in trees, where they can gain access to the rotten core. A single king and queen usually head each colony, but there may be additional termites that can reproduce and contribute broods to the colony. Colonies are small and rarely have more than one thousand individuals.

Inflammatory Autoimmune

Cicatricial pemphigoid (CP), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and epidermolysis bullosa (EB) are rare causes of pharyngitis that deserve mentioning. CP is a rare, chronic blistering disease that involves the oral mucosa in nearly all patients lesions may extend to the oropharynx in a significant number of persons. Blisters, ulcers, erosions, and scarring are demonstrated clinically. Diagnosis is made by tissue biopsy and immunostaining microscopy. Steroids and other immunosup-pressants are used for supportive treatment. EB is a rare disorder characterized by skin and mucosal blister formation in response to mechanical trauma. The majority of cases are genetically inherited, although spontaneous cases are possible. Several forms of EB have been described, including EB simplex, EB junctional, and EB dystrophic, in order of decreasing incidence. The pathophysiology of this disease results from IgG autoantibodies targeting anchoring fibrils of collagen in the...


A relatively recent development in fingerprinting fungi has been the introduction of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis see Vos and Kuipper (1997) Vos et al. (1995) . In this technique, total DNA is digested with restriction enzymes, and then short artificial oligonucleotides (linkers) are ligated to the restriction enzyme sites. Specific primers are then designed that show a particular degree of specificity to the linker sequences, and large fractions of the total DNA can then be amplified as fragments. The AFLP analysis generates many bands, and electrophoresis is usually undertaken in large polyacrylamide gels, it is however, possible to undertake more restricted studies that generate fewer bands and that can be analyzed in smaller electrophoresis systems e.g., Mueller et al. (1996) . At the conclusion of RAPD and AFLP analyses PCR bands of interest can be extracted, purified, and sequenced to produce sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs). The...


Healing will take place and produce the best scar if the wound edges, retaining a good blood supply, are apposed accurately, without tension or trauma, in the absence of infection, and with the minimum foreign material present. Traumatized or crushed skin may show little evidence of non-viability at the time of repair but will subsequently die and scar. Rough handling and grasping the skin with dissecting forceps will add to the trauma rather the closed blades of the forceps should be used to move the skin and exert coun-terpressure, or use skin hooks. Suture material mounted in eyeless needles should be used. If the skin edges tend to invert, they can be everted using mattress sutures. These are double stitches that may cross the wound parallel to each other (horizontal mattress, or in the same line) vertical mattress (Fig. 6.4). These stitches must be removed at varying times. On the face they can often be removed after 48 h to avoid producing ladder-type marks across the scar. On...

Elliptical biopsy

To close the ellipse, the skin edges may be gently undermined. The wound is sutured to bring the edges together, forming a linear scar. It is often valuable to place the first stitch across the centre of the ellipse where the gap is greatest and insert the other stitches subsequently. If the first stitch is now lax, it can be removed and a replacement inserted. If the ellipse is short and wide, closure will be difficult. Long, narrow ellipses are easy to close and produce the best scars.

Head injury

Only a minority of head injuries are open, that is, a wound that penetrates all the layers of the skull and exposes the brain. By their nature, these tend to follow penetrating injury and may be caused by a sharp stone corner, knife or bullet. The survivable injuries tend to be localised and damage limited. The patient is often conscious and requires referral to a neurosurgeon to have the defect closed under antibiotic cover in order to prevent infection. Brain scarring (gliosis) occurs and post-traumatic epilepsy is common. Prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy may be needed.

Medical Devices

Such stents have been produced with a variety of drug coatings in further attempts to minimize the time for, or altogether eliminate, the possibility of restenosis. The most common drug used to coat stents is sirolimus (also known as rapamycin). Drugs like sirolimus work by stopping cell growth they also stop scar tissue from forming within arteries that have been opened. For more details, refer to Chapter 33.

Thoracic Surgery

Pain is another important yet common long-term effect of surgery. In most cases, the pain may be intermittent and less severe, such as discomfort from a pulling sensation caused by scarring after lumpectomy.25 However, in the post-thoracotomy pain syndrome, the discomfort can be constant and disabling. It is felt to be possibly due to scar tissue involving the intercostal nerves that run along the ribs.26 Pneumonec-tomy can leave patients with decreased pulmonary reserve resulting in dyspnea on exertion and increased propensity for pneumothoraces, pulmonary edema, or infection. Rarely, there can be compression of mediastinal structures due to mediastinal shift.27 Post-thoracotomy pain can often require oral analgesics, and in refractory cases nerve blocks and epidural anesthetic pumps.

Strategic Planning

The left renal vein is often adherent to scar or residual tumor close to the confluence of the spermatic vein (A). In this case, a wedge resection can easily be done (B). Figure 11-10. The left renal vein is often adherent to scar or residual tumor close to the confluence of the spermatic vein (A). In this case, a wedge resection can easily be done (B).


The clinical signs of local inflammation have been described by Celsus (25 AD) 'Notae vero inflammationis sunt quattuor rubor et tumor cum calore et dolore', with Galen (AD 170) later adding 'Functio laesa' to the definition. If the injurious agent is removed or overcome by the local inflammatory response, the inflammation will subside with complete restitution of the original architecture and function of the injured tissue (resolution), or when tissue had been destroyed, with the formation of scar tissue. Persistence of injury will result in chronic inflammation with gradual destruction to tissues caused by the inflammatory process. Should the body mount an inadequate inflammatory response, poor wound healing and uncontrolled infection may result. Under certain conditions a normal or exaggerated local inflammatory process can become deleterious for example, intracranial inflammatory oedema after head injury, inflammatory bowel disease and laryngeal oedema in croup.


Secondary Prophylaxis After approximately three weeks of acute therapy, but at the earliest with scar formation of lesions, a reduced dose secondary prophylaxis (maintenance therapy) should begin, preferably with oral valganciclovir (Lalezari 2002). However, the drug is not only extremely expensive (three weeks of induction therapy cost around 4,500 Euro - the manufacturer demands a high price for the savings in nursing or hospital care), but also just as myelotoxic as ganciclovir infusions.

Phosgene Cocl2

Delayed onset (up to 24 hours) of acute lung injury is the chief manifestation of toxicity, although battlefield exposures have been reported to have onset of symptoms within 2-6 hours. As in the case of chlorine, pulmonary edema is noncardiogenic. Systemic illness and death occur because of hypoxia. Long-term effects of phosgene exposure include pulmonary scarring, emphysema, and airway reactivity.

Peptic ulcer

Surgery for peptic ulcer disease is now much less common than it used to be. Elective surgery is extremely rare, and consisted of acid-reducing procedures (vagotomy, selective vago-tomy, antrectomy), and gastric resections. Complications from these operations were common, and recurrent ulceration well recognised. It is still occasionally necessary to perform elective surgery for resistant ulcer disease, but only after all medical treatment has been tried thoroughly. Emergency surgery for complications is still common, but less common than 20 years ago. The treatment of bleeding ulcers and perforations has been described already (see Upper GI Bleeding and Perforated Viscus). Gastric outlet obstruction may result from scarring and fibrosis secondary to ulceration in the pyloric region and duodenum, and this often requires surgical intervention. Balloon dilatation at endoscopy is a good first-line treatment, but may result in perforation requiring surgery. Operative treatment of gastric...


Cerebral atrophy is responsible for secondary changes of the artery wall that lead to pathological alterations of the aging brain. Narrowing or obliteration of the vessel lumen as well as the formation of thrombi with the consequence of disturbances of the blood circulation in the specifically irrigated cerebral zones are the unfavorable outcomes of atherosclerosis that frequently result in cerebral infarctions. Although the clinical manifestations due to a cerebral infarction are the consequences of the destroyed structures in the brain area where the lesion has occurred, further pathological development of damaged tissue may cause additional symptoms (e.g., multinfarct dementia). Multiple micro-infarctions, or lacunar infarcts (diameter 3-20 mm) are lesions most common and most severe in hypertensive patients, although they also have been found in normo-tensive subjects. The frequency of lacunar infarcts increases in the fifth and sixth decade, but thereafter they become less...

Congenital Syphilis

Similar to acquired syphilis, congenital infection is divided into early and late stages. There are often no abnormalities noted at birth, but exam or diagnostic findings are nearly always present by three months of age. However, the severity of early disease can range from asymptomatic imaging findings to severe, life-threatening multiorgan system disease. Early congenital syphilis characteristically first presents with a serosanguinous nasal discharge and rhinitis known as snuffles. The rash of early syphilis is a diffuse maculopapular rash that develops into epithelial sloughing. Vesicles or bullae may also be present and the fluid within is highly infectious. Oral mucous patches are often seen. Facial lesions on the lips and nose, as well as anal lesions, may heal with radiating scars known as rhagades. Visceral involvement is relatively frequent, with the liver often heavily infected, leading to jaundice, splenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Bony abnormalities related to...

Topical Reactions

Another adult suffered garlic burns after applying a compress of crushed garlic wrapped in cotton to her chest and abdomen for 18 hours (102). The erythematous, blistering rash was in a dermatomal distribution on the right side of the patient's chest and upper abdomen, approximating the dermatomal distribution of thoracic segments 8 and 9. She reported that the pain had been present for 1 week and had a stabbing quality. She was initially diagnosed with Herpes zoster and was prescribed acyclovir before admitting to use of topical garlic after further questioning. Biopsy revealed full thickness necrosis, many pyknotic nuclei, and focal separation of the necrotic epidermis from the dermis. The burns healed with scarring. The patient refused patch testing, and specific IgE RAST testing to garlic was negative. The nonspecific appearance of garlic burns has been exploited. Three soldiers applied fresh ground garlic to their lower legs and antecubital fossa to produce an erythematous,...

Late Remyelination

The presence of cells in very early stages of oligodendrocyte development identified in completely demyelinated plaques devoid of mature oligodendrocytes, as well as in chronic lesions devoid of remyelination (51), suggests that the failure of remyelination at these later disease phases is not due to a lack of oligodendrocyte progenitors, as is the case in early remyelinating MS lesions, but rather the lesion microenvironment may not be receptive to remyelination signals (52). Whether this is due to an imbalance of growth factors, an abnormal composition of axons, glial scarring, or impaired axon-oligodendrocyte interaction is uncertain. To what extent progenitor cells already present within chronic MS lesions can be stimulated to divide, repopulate the lesion, and initiate remyelination must still be determined.


In 53 women (mean age 42 ++ 12 years) with chronic non-obstructive pyelonephritis, E. coli strains were examined. All patients suffering from an acute UTI were examined micro-biologically. Subsequent investigations of the patients did not provide any clinical or biochemical clues to an acute infection. The diagnosis was established on the basis of clinical history as well as clinical, laboratory and radiological findings (renal scarring, caliceal clubbing and blunting). In all patients, a vesicoureteral reflux, an obstruction due to concrements or a metabolic disorder (diabetes mellitus, hyperuricemia) were ruled out. In no case was urinary tract infection associated with glomerulonephritis or a gynecological disease. No immunocompromised host was included.

Mammary duct fistula

Clinically, the condition usually presents as a discharging area(s) in the breast in the vicinity of the areola recurrent episodes of infection involving the fistula is not uncommon (Fig. 17.15). Treatment of this condition requires excision of the whole fistula tract, and adjacent area of scar tissue, with healing either by secondary intention or by primary closure under antibiotic cover. However, in some patients the fistula can recur and more radical surgery (subareolar duct excision) is required.

Fat necrosis

Fat necrosis of the breast occurs most commonly in obese and post-menopausal women. Frequently, patients give a history of trauma to the breast and complain of a subsequent breast lump. The lump may be difficult to differentiate (clinically and mammographically) from a breast cancer as it can be hard, be associated with skin tethering and show varying inflammatory changes in the overlying skin of the breast. Macroscopically, the tissue is yellow in colour and haemorrhagic microscopically there is necrosis of fat, scar formation and infiltration with polymorphs, macrophages and giant cells. Although FNAC may be helpful, biopsy may sometimes be necessary to obtain a definitive diagnosis.

Functional tests

This agent is both filtered and resorbed by the kidney. It has high cortical fixation and is therefore the agent of choice for renal cortical imaging in cases of acute pyelonephritis and renal scarring. A non-functioning obstructed kidney can also have its tubular function assessed by a static renogram using technetium-labelled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA).


If the anti-reflux valve mechanism at the VUJ is ineffective, urine will reflux up the ureter when the bladder contracts during voiding. When the bladder is empty and relaxes, the refluxed urine in the ureters refills the bladder so giving an effective residual volume that can become infected and lead to recurrent urine infections. Refluxing urine can lead to pressure damage in the kidney and infected urine can lead to pyelonephritis, both of which may lead to renal scarring and renal tubular damage, particularly if it occurs in childhood. This condition is a developmental anomaly and is seen in children when the kidneys are still growing and are most susceptible to damage (see Chapter 21).

Global Distribution

Blindness 1.0 , (2) prevalence of Bitot spots 0.5 , (3) prevalence of corneal xerosis and or ulceration 0.01 , (4) prevalence of xerophthalmia-related corneal scars 0.05 (600). Supportive biochemical evidence of deficiency is a prevalence of serum retinol 5 (600). Vietnam. The prevalence of xerophthalmia has declined in Vietnam since the mid-1980s. In a survey in 1985 of 14,238 preschool children in the Hanoi region and the provinces of Vinh Phu, Ha Nam Ninh, Ha So.n Binh, and Hai Phong, the overall prevalence of xerophthalmia was 0.78 . Active corneal xerophthalmia was found in 0.08 , and 0.13 of children had corneal scarring from xerophthalmia (605). In 1984, a study of 2207 preschool children in Hoang Thi Luy, Ngo Nhu, and Phan Ke Ton and the vicinity of Ho Chi Minh City showed that 0.24 had night blindness, 0.13 had Bitot spots, 0.13 had corneal xerosis, and 0.27 had corneal scarring (606). In the Vietnam National Blindness Survey conducted 1985-1988, of 34,214 preschool children,...

Ovarian Tumors

An adolescent male testicle with regressed primary germ cell tumor the patient had metastasis to the retroperitoneum, which was the primary manifestation. Note focal area of scar. The insert shows scar and tubules the peripheral section shows intratubular germ cell neoplasia-unclassified (left lower insert, original magnification x40 upper right insert x200). Figure 22-8. An adolescent male testicle with regressed primary germ cell tumor the patient had metastasis to the retroperitoneum, which was the primary manifestation. Note focal area of scar. The insert shows scar and tubules the peripheral section shows intratubular germ cell neoplasia-unclassified (left lower insert, original magnification x40 upper right insert x200).

Burn Assessment

First-degree burns involve the epidermis layer of the skin, but not the dermal layer. These injuries are characterized by pain, erythema, and lack of blisters. These burns heal without scar formation. First-degree burns are not considered in calculation of the TBSA burned. Superficial partial-thickness burn injury involves the papillary dermis, containing pain-sensitive nerve endings. Burn management, burns, burn blisters, or bullae may be present, and the burns usually appear pink and moist. These burn management, burns, and burn injuries heal with little or no scarring. Deep partial-thickness burn injury damages both the papillary and reticular dermis. These injuries may not be burn management, burns, or burn painful, and often appear white or mottled pink. Deep partial-thickness burns can produce burn management, burns, and burn with significant scarring. Full-thickness or third-degree burns involve all layers of the epidermis and dermis and may destroy subcutaneous structures....


This is when a fracture fails to unite (Fig. 22.1) unless external intervention is undertaken. The healing process fails completely and the fracture ends remain separate. They may be bridged by scar tissue. There may be a surrounding capsule of fibrous tissue with a fluid-filled cavity between the fracture ends (pseudoarthrosis). the fracture and without bone grafting, the fracture will not unite. This usually involves surgical exposure of the fracture ends and removal of any pseudoarthrosis and false capsule together with associated scar tissue. Osteogenic activity is promoted by means of the bone graft (see below). Then the fracture is immobilized either by internal or external fixation. Hypertrophic union is characterized by massive callus formation which can become ossified but there is incomplete bridging between the fracture ends and the fracture remains mobile. In such cases the biomechanics of the fracture are at fault and the usual cause is inadequate immobilization of the...

Clinical Diagnosis

A deficiency are night blindness and Bitot spots. Although the earlier literature may refer to night blindness and Bitot spots as mild vitamin A deficiency, the presence of clinical vitamin A deficiency actually represents a later, more severe state of vitamin A deficiency. A simple history of night blindness can be used as a diagnostic indicator for vitamin A deficiency (972) and is especially useful in areas where vitamin A deficiency is endemic. As noted previously, Bitot spots are considered pathognomonic for vitamin A deficiency. Individuals who have had longstanding clinical vitamin A deficiency may develop irreversible squamous metaplasia of the conjunctiva, and Bitot spots in these individuals may not respond to vitamin A therapy. Thus, Bitot spots may not necessarily represent active vitamin A deficiency, especially among school-aged children. Infants or children with corneal xerosis, corneal ulceration, or keratomalacia are at an extremely high risk of dying, and great...


Helpful to see if the patient can heel walk and toe walk as this may exacerbate pain and also allows some assessment of motor power around the ankle and foot. Careful inspection of the feet, including the soles, for abnormal pressure patterns is important. Any deformity of the toes, midfoot or hindfoot should be noted. In particular, look for previous surgical scars, atrophic skin changes and ulceration over bony prominences.

Time [sec

Distribution of field inhomogeneities. Koehler et al. (24) showed that this structure can be observed on T2* maps of rat hearts at 11.75 T, a field strength much higher than used in current clinical MRI scanners. In this study, an in-plane resolution of 78 m and a slice thickness of 250 m were achieved, which compares quite favorably with photographs of postmortem histological sections. The field inhomogeneities revealed by T2* did provide structural information about biological tissue (both normal and scar tissue), as shown in Fig. 17. Two obvious advantages of this NMR technique compared to conventional histology are its noninvasive nature and speed.


Local symptoms of laryngeal amyloidosis can be managed by endoscopic excision, or less commonly, by open surgery. Total removal is often not possible and the disease typically recurs, requiring frequent surgery, or ultimately tracheotomy to relieve obstruction. Scarring from surgical excision can cause permanent airway or voice impairment.


On physical examination, supraglottic involvement appears as a pale and diffusely enlarged, sometimes nodular epiglottis. Vocal fold involvement appears as pale submucosal masses. Histopathologic examination of these lesions reveals characteristic granulomas. However, biopsy does not definitively establish the diagnosis, because many other conditions can produce granuloma. Laryngeal lesions require treatment only if symptomatic. Epiglottic lesions that cause dyspnea may be debulked endoscopically. Repeat surgery may be necessary. Vocal fold lesions may also impair the airway, and if so, they should be removed endoscopically however, if the only symptom of a vocal fold lesion is hoarseness, surgery should be approached with caution. Postoperative scarring and tissue loss can further impair the voice, potentially causing severe dysphonia. Alternative management is intralesional steroid injections repeated at intervals (11). Detailed discussion of sarcoidosis can be found in Chapter 6.


Dermataolgy The Sea

Cryptochitons and other chitons roll up when dislodged from a rock, about the only defensive trick these animals have. Several species, such as the mossy chiton (Mopalia muscosa), have home scars , or areas on a rock that they return to following excursions for feeding these place are often particularly well situated for the chiton to grasp onto to avoid dislodgement by waves as the tide comes in. Except for the predatory chiton, Placiphorella velata, which can quickly trap prey with its head-flap , most chitons are highly sedentary


Ocular management of KCS has three goals (i) replacing the aqueous tear film and restoring normal tear function through the use of preservative-free artificial tears (ii) improving retention of the patient's diminished tear volume by closing lacrimal puncta, either temporarily or permanently and (iii) treating various ocular complications that can lead to scarring of the cornea, such as persistent epithelial erosions, exposure keratitis, corneal ulceration, and chronic staphylococcus infection of the lid margins. There are many forms of artificial tears that can be used for tear replacement, but those in multi-dose containers should be avoided. Multi-dose bottles contain preservatives to which many patients develop hypersensitivity reactions that may eventually lead to conjunctival scarring and a further decrease in tear production. Preservative-free single-unit-dose eye drops such as Refresh , Cellufresh , and Celluvics are the most effective artificial tears, and do not cause...

Head and Neck

Oral ulcerations represent the most common finding of disease and are seen in over 95 of patients with Adamantiades-Behget's. They are required for diagnosis (Table 1), although some argue that in rare cases, oral ulcers need not be present for the diagnosis to be made. The oral ulcerations seen in Adamantiades-Behget' s may be present on the tongue, lips, gingival surfaces, buccal mucosa, soft palate, or posterior pharynx (Fig. 1). In general, they are shallow and painful, resolving in one to three weeks, usually healing without scarring. The ulcers (

Ringtailed lemur

Individuals are equipped with scent glands on wrists (carpal or antebrachial glands), arms (brachial glands), and chests with which they mark territory and foraging routes with exhuda-tions. Males' wrist glands are further gifted with small, horny, thornlike outcrops with which the males gouge scars into tree trunks and branches to add a visual component to their scent markings.


Lip Lesion

Both the keratinized masticatory mucosa and the nonkeratinized mucosa. Lesions begin as vesicles and rapidly ulcerate to form confluent ulcers. The lesions generally heal without scarring in 10 to 14 days. Smaller, shallow aphthae less than 0.5 cm are termed minor aphthae and may be solitary (Fig. 7) or multiple (Fig. 8). An erythematous halo frequently surrounds the ulcerated area. They are relatively superficial and heal without scarring in 7 to 10 days. Larger, deeper aphthae greater than 0.5 cm are termed major aphthae (Fig. 9). As with minor apthae, major aphthae may be solitary or multiple. Due to the depth and extent of tissue destruction, they are slower to heal and often heal with scarring. FIGURE 9 Solitary major aphtha. Adult male with a large, deep lesion of lower lip present for two weeks. Borders are rolled and indurated. Because they are associated with deeper destruction and healing by secondary intention, major aphthae may heal with scarring. Aphthae located on highly...


Systemic manifestations may involve multiple organs and are predicated on the clinical stage. Serious and disabling systemic involvement is usually associated with tertiary syphilis. The stage is characterized by organ system symptom complexes divided into neurosyphilis, cardiosyphilis, and benign gummatous syphilis. Neurosyphilis is characterized by meningeal signs, possibly with cranial nerve involvement meningovascular syphilis and associated CNS ischemia and stroke parenchymatous neurosyphilis associated with the classic sensory ataxia and autonomic dysfunction of tabes dorsalis (11,12). Cardiosyphilis occurs as a consequence of spirochete invasion of the coronary vessels and aorta, leading to endarteritis obliterans. Involvement of the aortic root produces scarring and necrosis of the aortic wall media, resulting in aneurysm formation. Benign gummatous syphilis is characterized by destructive lesions (gummata) that affect soft tissue and bone throughout the body. These lesions...

Chest Radiation

Radiation fields that include elements of the gastrointestinal tract can cause scarring and strictures. These most commonly occur in the small bowel, but they can also occur in other areas like the esophagus. Strictures develop as a late effect and present with obstructive symptoms. Therefore, like adhesions, they can be confused clinically with possible cancer recurrence. It is important to recognize that radiation to the spleen can render patients functionally asplenic, with all the same implications for infectious risk as with surgical removal. The bladder can be scarred from radiation, resulting in persistent irritative symptoms or decreased capacity. These complications can actually sometimes worsen with time.39 Medications for urge incontinence like oxybutynin or tolterodine may be helpful. Brachytherapy, increasingly used in early stage prostate cancer, is less likely to cause bladder problems than is external beam radiation. Radiotherapy can also leave the vagina dry and...

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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