Clinical Content Adds Interest

Clinical information is presented throughout the text to underscore the real-life importance of understanding human physiology and to provide concrete examples that demonstrate the application of complex physiological concepts.

Clinical Investigation-

Clinical Investigations are diagnostic puzzles provided at the very beginning of each chapter. These thought-provoking cases are designed to engage students' interest and motivate them to delve into the content of each chapter. Students must read the chapter, understand the concepts, and look for clues in order to arrive at the correct diagnosis.

Clinical Investigation

Jason is a 19-year-old college student who goes to the doctor complaining of chronic fatigue.The doctor palpates Jason's radial pulse and discovers that it is fast and weak. An echocardiogram and later coronary arteriograph reveal that he has a ventricular septal defect and mitral stenosis. His electrocardiogram (ECG) indicates that he has sinus tachycardia.When laboratory test results are returned, they indicate that Jason has a very high plasma cholesterol concentration with a high LDL/HDL ratio.

What can be concluded from these findings, and how are they related to Jason's complaint of chronic fatigue?

Clinical Investigation Clues

Remember that Brenda experienced muscle pain and fatigue during her training, and that she had an episode where she experienced severe pain in her left pectoral region following an intense workout.

What produced her muscle pain and fatigue?

What might have caused the severe pain in her left pectoral region?

Which of these effects are normal?

Clinical Investigation Clues

Scattered within each chapter, these short boxes remind students of the ongoing clinical investigation puzzle and provide clues to the solution. Clues are carefully placed so they always relate to the information presented in the preceding text. These clues help reinforce comprehension of the text material and spur students to continue reading so they can gather all of the pertinent information needed to solve the puzzle. After attempting to diagnose the case, students can find the solution to each Clinical Investigation in Appendix A.

Boxed Clinical and Fitness Applications

Applications—in clinical medicine general health, and physical fitness—of basic physiological principles are found intermittently throughout the body of the text. Placement of these applications is precise—they always relate to concepts that have been presented immediately preceding the application. As such, they provide immediate reinforcement for students learning the fundamental principles on which the applications are based. This is preferable to longer but fewer magazine-article-type applications that are separated from the text information. The immediate reinforcement allows students to see the practical importance of learning the material they have just studied.

The saturated fat content (expressed as a percentage of total fat) for some food items is as follows: canola, or rapeseed, oil (6%); olive oil (14%); margarine (17%); chicken fat (31%); palm oil (51%); beef fat (52%); butter fat (66%); and coconut oil (77%). Health authorities recommend that a person's total fat intake not exceed 30% of the total energy in than 10% of the | the diet may coi icant risk factor| mal fats, which saturated than

Many people with dangerously high LDL-cholesterol concentrations take drugs known as statins. These drugs function as inhibitors of the enzyme HMG-coenzyme A reductase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. The statins therefore decrease the ability of the liver to produce its own cholesterol. The lowered intracellular cholesterol then stimulates the production of LDL receptors, allowing the liver cells to engulf more LDL-cholesterol. When a person takes a statin drug, therefore, the liver cells remove more LDL-cholesterol from the blood and thus decrease the amount of blood LDL-cholesterol that can enter the endothelial cells of arteries.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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