G

GABA. See Gamma-aminobutyric acid G-actin, 335

G-CSF. See Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor Gage, Phineas P., 201 Galactose, 32/ Galen, 6

Gallbladder, 580-581, 580/ as accessory digestive organ, 561/, 562 regulation of, 587 structure of, 580 Gallstones, 580, 581/ Gametes (germ cells), 634 Gamma globulin, 453 Gamma motoneurons, 349-350

coactivation of, 350 Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), as neurotransmitter, 179, 180t, 182 Gamma-carboxyglutamate, 377 Ganglion (ganglia), 153, 153t autonomic, 221 basal (See Basal nuclei) ciliary, 224

collateral, 222-223, 224/ collateral sympathetic, 224/ definition of, 221 dorsal root, 213, 348 otic, 224-225 paravertebral, 222, 222/ pterygopalatine, 224 submandibular, 224 terminal, 223 Ganglion cells, 268

receptive fields of, 275-276, 276/ Ganglionic gliocytes (satellite cells), 155, 156t Gap junctions cell signaling through, 143, 167-168, 168/ in myocardial cells, 354, 354/, 384 GAS. See General adaptation syndrome Gas(es). See also specific gases as neurotransmitters, 180t partial pressure of, 493, 494/ in blood, 494--99, 495/, 496/, 497/,

503, 503t and breathing, 500-502 calculation of, 494 high, disorders caused by, 498-499 Gas exchange by diffusion, 128-129, 129/ in lungs, 480, 493-499 Gastric. See also Stomach entries Gastric acid, secretion of, 566-567, 567/ Gastric glands, 14, 566, 566/ Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) discovery of, 583 functions of, 583t, 585 Gastric juice, 566, 584

Gastric phase, of gastric regulation, 584, 584t Gastric pits, 565, 566/ Gastrin, 566, 568 discovery of, 583 functions of, 583t secretion of, 583-584, 584/ trophic effects of, 587 Gastritis, acute, 568 Gastroesophageal junction, 564 Gastroesophageal reflux disease, 566 Gastroesophageal sphincter, 564 Gastroileal reflex, 586 Gastrointestinal (GI) tract. See also speci/ic organs absorption in (See Absorption, gastrointestinal) functions of, 562-563 hormones in, 315, 583 effects of, 583t, 587 innervation of, 563, 585

dual, 234 layers of, 562-563, 562/ organs of, 561, 561/ regulation of, 563, 583-587 Gated ion channels, 129, 129/, 161, 161/

and refractory periods, 163 Gating, ion, in axons, 161, 161/ Gaucher's disease, 93t

GDNF. See Glial-derived neurotrophic factor Gehrig, Lou, 348 Gene(s) active, 62

defects of, in metabolism, 91-92, 92/, 93i definition of, 61

expression of, 61-64

functions of, 61

for olfactory receptors, 250

p21, 71

p53, 71-72

recombination of, 78

SRY, 636

transcription of, 62, 64, 65/, 66/ chromatin in, 62 definition of, 61 factors, 64 translation of, 61, 65-69, 66/, 68/ Gene therapy, 71 for cystic fibrosis, 129 for severe combined immunodeficiency, 71 General adaptation syndrome (GAS), 307 Generator potentials, 243, 244/ Genetic engineering, and growth hormone, 622 Genetic mutations, somatic, 456 Genetic recombination, 448 Genetic screening, of neonates, 677 Genetic testing, 672 Geniculate nucleus lateral, and visual information, 204, 274, 276

medial, and auditory information, 204 Geniculostriate system, 274 Genital tubercle, 637 Genitalia, external development of, 637-639, 638/ female, 655, 655/ Genome, human, 42 Germ cells (gametes), 634 Germinal cells, 636 Germinal centers, 400 GFR. See Glomerular filtration, rate of GH. See Growth hormone Ghrelin, 566, 607

GHRH. See Growth hormone-releasing hormone GI tract. See Gastrointestinal tract Gigantism, 300, 622 Gilman, Alfred, 7t GIP. See Gastric inhibitory peptide Gland(s). See also Endocrine glands;

Exocrine glands; specific glands autonomic regulation of, 220, 221 formation of, 12, 15/ Glans penis, 651/ Glaucoma, 263 Glerke's disease, 93t Glial cells. See Neuroglial cells Glial-derived neurotrophic factor

(GDNF), 158 Gliocytes, ganglionic (satellite cells),

155, 156t Globins, 368, 504 Globulins alpha, 368 beta, 368

functions of, 368, 580 gamma, 368 production of, 580 Globus pallidus, 197, 352 Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule, 526,

529/, 530/ Glomerular filtration, 529-531 barriers to, 529, 530/ rate of (GFR), 529 inulin clearance and, 540-542, 541/ regulation of, 531, 5311 Glomerular ultrafiltrate, 529, 530/ Glomerulonephritis, 470t, 471, 551 Glomerulus(i), 249, 250/, 416, 526 Glossary, 688-705 Glossopharyngeal nerve, 212t, 225t parasympathetic fibers in, 223 in taste buds, 248 Glottis, 481, 483/

GLP-1. See Glucagon-like peptide-1 Glucagon, 9, 288t in absorptive state, 613 insulin and, 290

metabolic regulation by, 610t, 619, 619/ as neurotransmitter, 180t in postabsorptive state, 613-614, 615/ secretion of, 312, 611 regulation of, 611-613, 611/ Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) functions of, 583t, 585 structure of, 585 Glucocorticoids, 306 and catecholamines, 290 exogenous, 306-307 and immune system, 308, 462 in metabolic regulation, 619, 620, 620/ secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone and,

299, 300t inadequate, 307 synthesis of, 306/ Gluconeogenesis, 108, 118, 580, 613, 614

Glucose active transport of, 137, 138/ in astrocytes, 159, 159/ blood hepatic regulation of, 579-580 negative feedback control of, 8, 8/ 9, 10/ secretion of, 107 chemical structure of, 32/ epithelial absorption of, 138, 139/ exercise and, 343-344 facilitated diffusion of, 135-136, 135/ fat formation from, 114/, 115 and glucagon secretion, 612-613 homeostasis of, 313/ and insulin secretion, 612-613 metabolism of aerobic, 104, 108-114 in glycolytic-lactic acid pathway,

104-108 lipid, 114—116, 114/ organs dependent on, 119, 119t renal reabsorption of, 543-544 in urine (See Glycosuria) Glucose 6-phosphatase deficiency, 93t in free glucose production, 107, 107/, 613 Glucose 1-phosphate, formation of, 107 Glucose 6-phosphate, formation of, 107, 108

Glucose tolerance test, oral, 612, 613/ Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide,

585, 613 GLUT proteins, 135-136 GLUT4 proteins, 135-136 Glutamic acid (glutamate) in astrocytes, 159, 159/ and blood clots, 377 as neurotransmitter, 179, 180t, 182

inhibition of, 181 as nonessential amino acid, 117t production of, 117-118, 118/ receptors, in long-term potentiation,

202, 203/ and umami, 248 Glutamine in astrocytes, 159, 159/ as nonessential amino acid, 117t Glutathione, as antioxidant, 111, 603 Glutathione peroxidase, 603 Glycerol in gluconeogenesis, 118 in triglyceride, 34—35, 35/ Glycine as neurotransmitter, 179, 180t, 182 as nonessential amino acid, 117t Glycogen, 32, 33/ as energy reserve, 604 granules of, 56 interconversion of, 119/ Glycogen phosphorylase deficiency, 93t in glycogenolysis, 107 Glycogen synthase, in glycogenesis, 107 Glycogenesis, 107-108, 107/, 579-580 Glycogenolysis, 107-108, 107/, 312,

580, 613 Glycolysis, 104-105, 106/ in aerobic respiration, 108 energy transfer in, 105, 105/ Glycolytic fibers, fast, 345 Glycoproteins, 40 endocrine functions of, 287, 288t in extracellular matrix, 127 Glycosuria, 135, 544

GM-CSF. See Granulocyte-monocyte colony-

stimulating factor GnRH. See Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Goal-directed behavior, cerebral area related to, 201 Goblet cells, 12, 566, 570 Goiter iodine-deficiency (endemic),

309-310, 310/ toxic, 310 Golgi complex, 51 /, 59, 60/ functions of, 50t, 54, 59, 67-69 structure of, 50t, 59 Golgi tendon organs, 348, 350-351, 351/ Gonad(s). See also Ovary(ies); Testes formation of, 635-637, 636/ gonadotropic hormones and, 640-641, 641/ hormone secretion by, 289, 315 hypothalamus and, 640-641, 641/ meiosis in, 75-78 pituitary gland and, 640-641, 641/ 644, 645/

Gonadotropic hormones, 300, 640-641, 641/

Gonadotropin secretion of, control of, 644-645 target organs of, 302f Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 303, 3031, 640-641, 641f synthetic analogues of, 641 Gossypol, 652 G-protein(s), 172-173 activation and inactivation of, 173t channels operated with, 172-173, 173f norepinephrine and, 177, 177/ 230 and olfaction, 250 in taste, 248-249 Graafian (mature) follicles, 657 Granular cells, 545

Granular (rough) endoplasmic reticulum, 51 f,

58-59, 59/ 60f Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

(G-CSF), 371, 459, 459t Granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), 371, 459, 459t Granulosa cells, 315, 656 Granzymes, 458, 469 Graves' disease, 310, 470t, 471 Gravity, and bone resorption, 624 Gray matter dorsal/ventral horns in, 209 location of, 191-192, 209 myelin sheaths in, lack of, 157 Gray rami communicantes, 222 Ground substance, in extracellular matrix, 127 Growth age and, 641-643, 642f growth hormone and, 622 sex and, 642, 642f Growth factor(s) vs. cytokines, 316 mechanism of action, 296 secretion by platelets, 370 Growth factor-1, multipotent, 371 Growth hormone (GH) functions of, 299, 300t in metabolic regulation, 610t, 618-619, 621-622, 621 f recombinant, 622 secretion of disorders in, 300, 622 regulation of, 300t, 621 target organs of, 302f Growth hormone-releasing hormone

(GHRH), 303, 303t GTP. See Guanosine triphosphate Guanine, 42, 42f, 43f, 62 Guanosine triphosphate (GTP), in Krebs cycle, 110 Guanylate cyclase, 585 Guanylin, 585

functions of, 583t, 585 Guillemin, Roger, 7t Gustation. See Taste Gustatory receptors, 248-249 Gustducin, 249

Gynecomastia, anabolic steroids and, 291 Gyrus(i), 193 angular, 199 cingulate, 200 postcentral, 193, 245 precentral, 193

H bands, 330 H chains, 453 Hageman factor, 375/ Hair bulb, 18/ Hair cells, 259/ and equilibrium, 251, 252/ in hearing, 258-261 Hales, Stephen, 432 Half-life, of hormones, 290-291 Hammer, 255

Handedness, vs. cerebral lateralization, 198 Hanson, Jean, 7t Haploid cells, 635 Haptens, 450

Harvey, William, 6, 394, 394/ Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 470, 470t Haustra, 572, 574/ Haversian systems, 16, 17/ Hawking, Steven, 348 Hay fever, 472

hCG. See Human chorionic gonadotropin hCS. See Human chorionic somatomammotropin

HDLs. See High-density lipoproteins Headache, in acute mountain sickness, 515 Hearing, 255-261 impairments of, 260-261 inner ear in, 257-261 middle ear in, 255-256 neural pathways for, 204, 260, 260f outer ear in, 255 Hearing aids, 261 Heart. See also Cardiac entries aerobic requirements of, 423 arrhythmias of, 387 electrocardiograph detection of,

397-399, 398f blood flow to, 379, 380, 423 abnormal, 382-383, 423, 424f regulation of, 423 cardiac cycle in, 381-382, 381 f abnormal, 387

pressure changes in, 381-382, 382f electrical activity of, 383-386

conduction of, 385-386, 386f as endocrine gland, 287t functions of, 366 innervation of autonomic, 408-409, 409t dual, 234

metabolism in, energy source for, 119t in pulmonary circulation, 379, 379f sounds, 382-383, 382f abnormal, 382-383 electrocardiogram and, 390, 390f first, 382

listening techniques for, 382, 383f second, 382 structure of, 366, 378-380 valves of atrioventricular, 380, 380f defective, 382 incompetent, 382 semilunar, 380, 380/ 381f Heart attack. See Myocardial infarction Heart disease creatine kinase and, 344 ischemic, 393, 397 Heart failure, congestive, 439 Heart murmurs, 382-383 Heartburn, 564

Heat, and chemical reactions, 86 Helicobacter pylori, and peptic ulcers, 568 Helicotrema, 257 Helper T lymphocytes, 458, 458f action of, 460-462, 463f activation of, 460-461 coreceptors on, 461, 461f HIV and, 458 subtypes of, 459 Hematocrit, 367 Hematopoiesis, 370-371 Hematopoietic stem cells, 64, 669 Hemes, 368, 504

metabolism of, 578f Hemiplegia, 353t

Hemispheres, cerebral, 192, 194/ 198f Hemodialysis, 552 Hemoglobin, 504-510 adult, 508

affinity for oxygen, altitude and, 515 altitude and, 515 composition of, 41 t concentrations of, 505 dissociation curve for, 509-510, 509f fetal, 508

inherited defects in, 508-509 loading reactions and, 505-506 vs. myoglobin, 509-510 oxidized (methemoglobin), 504-505 oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve and,

506-507, 506f reduced (deoxyhemoglobin), 504 structure of, 40, 40f, 368, 504, 505f unloading reactions and, 505-506 Hemoglobin A, 508 Hemoglobin F, 508 Hemoglobin S, 508 Hemolysis, 133 Hemolytic disease autoimmune, 470t of newborn, 374, 577 Hemophilia A, 375, 376t Hemophilia B, 376t Hemopoiesis. See Hematopoiesis Hemostasis, 374. See also Blood clot/clotting Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, 378 Henle, loop of, 526, 534, 534f Henry's law, 494 Hensen, duct of, 255

Heparin, 376, 376t, 452-453 Hepatic. See also Liver entries Hepatic artery, 575 Hepatic ducts, 576, 580-581, 580f Hepatic plates, 575, 576f Hepatic portal system, 575 Hepatic portal vein, 575 Hepatic vein, 575 Hepatitis receptor-mediated endocytosis in, 54 transaminase concentrations and, 88t Hepatitis B, 471 Hepatocytes, 575 Hering-Breuer reflex, 504 Hermaphroditism, 639-640 Heroin, dopaminergic neurons and, 206 Heterochromatin, 62 Heterodimers, 293 Hexane, 30f

Hexose sugars, 31-32, 32f High-density lipoproteins (HDLs), 396,

591, 591 t Hindbrain, 204f, 206-208

development of, 191, 191 f Hippocampus in limbic system, 200 long-term potentiation in, 202 in memory, 201-202 neurons in, production of new, 193 Histamine as neurotransmitter, 180t release of in complement system, 456, 457 in gastrointestinal tract, 566, 584, 584f during inflammation/allergy, 453, 472, 472f Histidine, as essential amino acid, 117t Histocompatibility antigens, 459, 460 Histology, 10 Histones, 62, 72f

HIV. See Human immunodeficiency virus HLAs. See Human leukocyte antigens HMG-coenzyme A reductase, 396 Hodgkin, Alan, 7t Homeostasis, 6-9 definition of, 6 and diagnostic procedures, 6 as dynamic constancy, 8, 8f quantitative measurements of, 8 Homocystinuria, 93t Homodimer, 293

Homologous chromosomes, 75-78, 76f,

634-635, 635f Horizontal acceleration, 253 Horizontal cells, 268 Hormone(s), 286-287. See also specific hormones and glands action of, mechanisms of, 292-298 activation of, 289

chemical classification of, 287-289 in circulatory system, 366 concentrations of pharmacological, 291 physiological, 291 and tissue response, 290-291 early research on, 583 gastrointestinal regulation by, 563,

583-587, 583t half-life of, 290-291 interactions among, 290 antagonistic, 290 permissive, 290 synergistic, 290 in menstrual cycle, 660-661, 661f metabolic regulation by, 609, 609f, 610/ 610t vs. neurotransmitters, 289-290 polarity of, 287-289 precursors of, 289 receptor proteins for nuclear, 292-294 orphan, 293 second messengers and, 294-298 secretion of feedback control of, 9 pulsatile, 291 Hormone-response element, 292 Hormone-sensitive lipase, 614 Horns dorsal, 209 ventral, 209 Hot flashes, in menopause, 665 Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), 316,

670, 670f, 673 Human chorionic somatomammotropin

(hCS), 673 Human Genome Project, 61

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 458 life cycle of, 449f T lymphocytes in, 450-451 Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), 460 Humoral immunity, 450 Humoral mechanism, of breathing and exercise, 513 Hunger, regulation of, 606-607 Huntington's chorea, 179 Huntington's disease, and amnesia, 201 Huxley, Andrew, 7t Huxley, Hugh, 7t Hybridoma, 467 Hydration spheres, 27 Hydrocarbons, 29-30, 30f Hydrochloric acid, secretion of, 566-568, 584 Hydrochlorothiazide, 550t, 551 Hydrocortisone. See Cortisol Hydrogen bonds, 27-28, 27f, 41 f carriers of, 96 isotopes of, 25 molecule, 25f in organic molecules, 29-30 in oxidation-reduction reactions, 96 structure of, 24t, 25f Hydrogen ions potassium ions and, 546-547, 547f sodium ions and, 546-547, 547f and sour taste, 248 Hydrogen peroxide, 603

diseases associated with, 111 Hydrogen-potassium ATPase pumps,

566, 567f Hydrolases, function of, 88 Hydrolysis, 32 in digestion, 560f, 561 of lipids, 35 of starch, 34f Hydronium ion, 28 Hydrophilic molecules, 27 Hydrophobic molecules, 27 Hydroxyapatite, 623 p-Hydroxybutyric acid, 116 Hydroxyl, 30, 30f diseases associated with, 111 formation of, 28 radical, 603 Hydroxylation, 579 5-Hydroxytryptamine. See Serotonin Hydroxyurea, 509 Hymen, 655f

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, 498 Hypercapnia, 501 Hypercholesteremia familial, and atherosclerosis, 396 as inborn error in lipid metabolism, 93t Hyperemia active, 422 reactive, 422 Hyperglycemia, 135, 544

and diabetes mellitus, 615 Hyperkalemia, 142, 545 Hyperopia, 267, 267f Hyperphagia, 604 Hyperplasia, 75 benign prostatic, 641, 650 congenital adrenal, 639 Hyperpnea, 513 Hyperpolarization inhibitory postsynaptic potential, 170, 173 of resting membrane potential, 160/ 161 Hypersensitivity reactions, 470. See also Allergy(ies) delayed, 458, 471, 4711, 473 denervation, 221 immediate, 471-472, 471 t, 472f Hypertension, 436-437 and compensatory hypertrophy, 75 dangers of, 437 etiology of, 436-437, 436t primary (essential), 436-437 pulmonary, 181, 515 secondary, 436, 436t treatment of, 232, 418, 437, 437t Hyperthyroidism, 310 vs. hypothyroidism, 311 t symptoms of, 310, 311f Hypertonic solutions, 133 Hypertrophy, 75 compensatory, 75 of prostate, benign, 88t Hyperventilation, 502, 511, 514, 515 Hypocalcemia, 624 Hypocapnia, 501, 502 Hypodermis, 18, 18f Hypoglossal nerves, 212t

Hypoglycemia, 136, 618 exercise and, 343-344 reactive, 618, 618/ Hypokalemia, 545, 551 Hypo-osmotic solutions, 133 Hypophagia, 604 Hypophysis. See Pituitary gland Hypopolarization. See Depolarization Hypotension postural, 432 of septic shock, 181 Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system, 301 Hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract, 205,

301, 301/ Hypothalamus, 205-206, 205/ and autonomic nervous system, 236 in body temperature regulation, 205 in emotion, 200-201, 205 endocrine functions of, 287t feeding center of, 200-201 and gonads, 640-641, 641/ and pituitary gland anterior, 301-303, 303/, 303t

640-641, 641/ posterior, 301, 301/ satiety center of, 200-201 thirst centers in, 418 Hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, 304/ Hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, 304/ Hypothermia, induced, 598 Hypothesis definition of, 4 null, 5

Hypothyroidism, 310-311 and cretinism, 311 etiology of, 310-311 vs. hyperthyroidism, 311t Hypotonic solutions, 133 Hypoventilation, 502, 502/, 511 Hypovolemic shock, 437-438 Hypoxemia, 487, 503 Hypoxic drive, 503

I bands, 326-328, 330-333 I neurons. See Inspiratory neurons ICC. See Interstitial cells of Cajal ICSH. See Interstitial cell stimulating hormone

ICSI. See Intracytoplasmic sperm injection IDDM (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).

See Diabetes mellitus, type 1 IGFs. See Insulin-like growth factors Ignarro, Louis, 7t Ileocecal valve, 569 Ileogastric reflex, 586 Ileum, 569

endocrine functions of, 583t Immune complex diseases, 470, 471 Immune system, 444 473 breast-feeding and, 678, 678/ cells of, 79

circulatory system and, 366, 440, 474 components of, 19t definition of, 446 digestive system and, 474, 592 diseases caused by, 470-473 endocrine system and, 319, 474 functions of, 19t glucocorticoid inhibition of, 308 integumentary system and, 474 membrane transport in, 145 muscular system and, 474 nervous system and, 237, 474 prostaglandins in, 318 reproductive system and, 474, 680 respiratory system and, 474, 516 sensory system and, 277 skeletal system and, 474 starvation and, 607-608 urinary system and, 474, 553 Immunity active, 464—-66, 467t clonal selection theory and, 464-466,

465/, 465t virulence and, 464, 464/ adaptive (specific), 446, 449—50, 451t cell-mediated, 450 humoral (antibody-mediated), 450 immunization and, 464, 465, 466

innate (nonspecific), 446-451, 446t 451i local inflammation in, 451-453, 451t,

452/, 453/ lymphocytes in, 450 lymphoid organs in, 450-451 passive, 464, 466, 467t primary response in, 464, 464/, 466 secondary response in, 464-465, 464/, 466 stress and, 469 tolerance in, 466 Immunizations early research on, 464 mechanisms of, 465, 466 Immunoassays, 450, 450/ Immunoglobulin(s), 453. See also Antibody(ies) breastfeeding and, 678, 678/ functions of, 455t subclasses of, 453, 455t Immunological competence, 466 Immunological surveillance, 468-469 Immunotherapy, for cancer, 469 Implantation, 667 In vitro fertilization, 667, 667/ Inborn errors of metabolism, 91-92, 92/, 93t Inclusions, 56 Incus, 255

Induced-fit model of enzyme activity, 86 Infarct, 107 Inflammation in asthma, 492

in immune complex diseases, 471 local, 451—-53, 451t, 452/, 453/ Infundibulum, 299, 299/ Ingestion, 561

Inheritance, mitochondrial DNA and, 58 Inhibin, 641, 644, 645, 646 Inhibiting hormones, 301-303 functions of, 205-206, 301 Inhibition of lactation during pregnancy, 290 lateral, in cutaneous sensation, 246, 247/ in metabolic pathway, 91, 92/ of negative feedback, 9

in anterior pituitary secretion, 303-304 of neurotransmitter activity, 179, 181 of prostaglandin synthesis, 318 in synaptic transmission, 182-183 inhibitory postsynaptic potential in, 170,

170/, 182-183, 183/ postsynaptic, 182, 183/ presynaptic, 183, 183/ Inhibitory neurotransmitters, 179 Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs),

170, 170/, 182-183, 183/ Inner ear, 251-255, 251/, 256/, 257-261 Innervation dual, of organs, 234-235 ratio, of motor units, 329 reciprocal double, 352

and skeletal muscle reflexes, 351-352, 352/ Inositol triphosphate (IP3), 296 Insertion, of skeletal muscle, 326 Insomnia, treatment for, 315 Inspiration, 488-489, 489/, 489t Inspiratory (I) neurons, 499 Inspiratory reserve volume, 489-491 Insula, 193, 194t Insulin, 288t in absorptive state, 613 action of glucagon and, 290 mechanism of, 296-298 chemical structure of, 40 composition of, 41 t and glycosuria, 135 and metabolism, 610t negative feedback control with, 8/, 9, 10/ as neurotransmitter, 144, 180t in postabsorptive state, 613-614, 615/ preprohormone of, 67, 289 production of, 289

in endoplasmic reticulum, 67, 69/ prohormone of, 67, 69/, 289 receptors for, 296-298, 298/ resistance to, 606, 617 secretion of, 312, 313, 313/, 611 regulation of, 585, 611-613, 611/, 612/ Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).

See Diabetes mellitus, type 1 Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), 316t, 621 Integral proteins, 51 Integrating center, 6 Integrins, 53, 127

Integumentary system. See also Cutaneous entries; Skin circulatory system and, 440 components of, 19t digestive system and, 592 endocrine system and, 319 functions of, 19t immune system and, 474 metabolism in, 120 muscular system and, 359 nervous system and, 237 reproductive system and, 680 respiratory system and, 516 sensory system and, 277 urinary system and, 553 Intention tremor, 352, 353t Intercalated discs, 10-11, 11/ 354, 354/ Intercostal muscles external, 488, 489/ internal, 488, 489/ parasternal, 488, 489/ Interferons, 448-449 alpha, 448 beta, 448

in cancer treatment, 448-449, 469 effects of, 448, 449t gamma, 448, 449 Interleukin(s), 316, 316t Interleukin-1, 371, 448

functions of, 459, 459t, 461 Interleukin-2 in cancer treatment, 469 functions of, 459, 459t, 461, 469 Interleukin-3, 371

functions of, 459t Interleukin-4, functions of, 459, 459t Interleukin-5, functions of, 459t Interleukin-6, 448

functions of, 459t Interleukin-12, 469 Interlobar arteries, 526 Interlobar veins, 526 Interlobular arteries, 526 Interlobular veins, 526 Interneurons (association neurons), 153t,

154, 348 Interoceptors, 248 Interphase, 71, 71/ 72, 73/ Interstitial cell stimulating hormone

(ICSH), 300 Interstitial cells. See Leydig cells Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), 571, 572/ Interstitial (tissue) fluid, 19, 126-127, 367, 412 exchange of, 413-415, 414/ pressure of, 413 volume of, 412, 413/ Interstitial tissue, 315 Intestinal crypts, 570, 570/ Intestinal microbiota, 573-574 Intestinal phase, of gastric regulation,

584-585, 584t Intestine(s). See also Large intestine; Small intestine and glucagon secretion, 613 and insulin secretion, 613 microvilli in, 55, 55/ reflexes of, 585-586 regulation of, 585-586 Intestino-intestinal reflexes, 586 Intracellular compartments, 19 water in, 24, 126, 412, 413/ Intracellular fluid, ion concentrations in, 142, 142/

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), 667 Intrafusal fibers, 348 Intralaminar nucleus, activation of, 204 Intrapleural pressure, 485, 485t Intrapleural space, 483, 485 Intrapulmonary pressure, 485, 485t Intravenous fluids, tonicity of, 133 Intrinsic factor, 369 secretion of, 566 Intrinsic pathway, 375 Intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, 9 Introns, 64 Inulin, 540

renal clearance of, 540-542, 541/ Involuntary effectors, neural control of, 220-221

Iodine, recommended dietary allowance for, 601t

Iodine-deficiency goiter, 309-310, 310/ Ion(s), 25. See also Electrolyte(s); speci/ic ions concentrations of, 142, 142/

Ion channels, 129, 129/, 161. See also speci/ic types in action potentials, 161-163 gated, 129, 129/ gating of, in axons, 161, 161 / G-proteins in, 172-173, 173/ inactivation of, 162 in neurotransmission, 169-170 regulation of chemical, 169-170, 171-173 ligand, 169 voltage, 169-170 voltage-gated, 161, 161/ and refractory periods, 163 Ionic bonds, in proteins, 41/ Ionic compounds, 25-27 Ionization, and osmotic pressure, 132, 133/ IP3. See Inositol triphosphate IPSPs. See Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials Iris, 262, 262t, 263 Iron daily requirements for, 372 in erythropoiesis, 371 in heme, 504

recommended dietary allowance for, 601t Iron-deficiency anemia, 369, 372 Irritant receptors, 503 Ischemia clinical presentation of, 107 definition of, 107, 397 etiology of, 107 Ischemic heart disease, 393, 397 Islets of Langerhans, 286, 286/, 312, 313/, 581/, 612/ functions of, 281t, 312, 581 metabolic regulation by, 611-614 Isoenzymes, 88

Isoleucine, as essential amino acid, 117t Isomerases, functions of, 88 D-Isomers, 31 L-Isomers, 31

Isometric contractions, 340-341 Isosmotic solution, 133 Isotonic contractions, 340-341 Isotonic solution, 133 Isotopes, 24-25 Isovolumetric contraction, 381 Isovolumetric relaxation, 382 Isthmus, 308

Jaundice, 577 obstructive, alkaline phosphatase concentrations and, 88t physiological, of newborn, 577 Jejunum, 569 Jenner, Edward, 464 Journals, peer-reviewed, 5 Junctional complexes, 13 Juvenile-onset diabetes. See Diabetes mellitus, type 1 Juxtaglomerular apparatus, 417, 417/ 545, 546/

Your Heart and Nutrition

Your Heart and Nutrition

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