Many small organic molecules are not antigenic by themselves but can become antigens if they bind to proteins (and thus become antigenic determinant sites on the proteins). This discovery was made by Karl Landsteiner, who also discovered the ABO blood groups (chapter 13). By bonding these small molecules—which Landsteiner called haptens—to proteins in the laboratory, new antigens could be created for research or diagnostic purposes. The bonding of foreign haptens to a person's own proteins can also occur in the body. By this means, derivatives of penicillin, for example, that would otherwise be harmless can produce fatal allergic reactions in susceptible people.

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