After studying this chapter, you should be able to .

1. describe the composition of the extracellular environment.

2. describe diffusion and explain its physical basis.

3. explain how nonpolar molecules, inorganic ions, and water can diffuse through a cell membrane.

4. state the factors that influence the rate of diffusion through cell membranes.

5. define the term osmosis and describe the conditions required for osmosis to occur.

6. define the terms osmolality and osmotic pressure and explain how these factors relate to osmosis.

define the term tonicity and distinguish between isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutions.

describe the characteristics of carrier-mediated transport.

describe the facilitated diffusion of glucose through cell membranes and give examples of its occurrence in the body.

explain what is meant by active transport and describe how the Na+/K+ pumps work.

explain how an equilibrium potential is produced when only one ion is able to diffuse through a cell membrane.

12. explain why the resting membrane potential is slightly different than the potassium equilibrium potential and describe the effect of the extracellular potassium concentration on the resting membrane potential.

13. discuss the role of the Na+/K+ pumps in the maintenance of the resting membrane potential.

14. distinguish between the different types of cell signaling.

Fox: Human Physiology, I 6. Interactions Between I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill

Eighth Edition Cells and the Extracellular Companies, 2003


Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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