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list the hormones secreted by the gonads and placenta.

describe the mechanisms of hormone action for steroid and thyroid hormones.

describe the mechanism of hormone action when cAMP is used as a second messenger.

describe the mechanism of hormone action when Ca2+ is used as a second messenger.

list the hormones of the anterior pituitary and explain how their secretion is regulated by the hypothalamus.

describe the production and actions of the thyroid hormones and explain how thyroid secretion is regulated.

describe the location of the parathyroid glands and explain the actions of PTH and the regulation of its secretion.

describe the types and actions of corticosteroids and explain how the secretions of the adrenal cortex are regulated.

describe the actions of epinephrine and norepinephrine, and explain how the secretions of the adrenal medulla are regulated.

explain why the pancreas is both an exocrine and an endocrine gland and describe the structure and functions of the pancreatic islets.

describe the actions of insulin and glucagon, and explain the regulation of their secretion.

list the hormones secreted by the pineal gland and thymus, and explain the significance of these hormones in general terms.

list the hormones secreted by the gonads and placenta.

describe autocrine and paracrine regulation with reference to the blood vessels and immune system.

describe the chemical nature and physiological roles of the prostaglandins and explain how the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs work.

Fox: Human Physiology, I 11. Endocrine Glands: I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill

Eighth Edition Secretion and Action of Companies, 2003

Hormones

Chapter at a Glance

Endocrine Glands and Hormones 286

Chemical Classification of Hormones 287 Prohormones and Prehormones 289 Common Aspects of Neural and Endocrine

Regulation 289 Hormone Interactions 290

Synergistic and Permissive Effects 290 Antagonistic Effects 290 Effects of Hormone Concentrations on Tissue Response 290 Priming Effects 291

Desensitization and Downregulation 291

Mechanisms of Hormone Action 292

Hormones That Bind to Nuclear Receptor Proteins 292 Mechanism of Steroid Hormone

Action 293 Mechanism of Thyroid Hormone Action 293 Hormones That Use Second Messengers 294 Adenylate Cyclase—Cyclic AMP Second-

Messenger System 294 Phospholipase C-Ca2+ Second-Messenger

System 296 Tyrosine Kinase Second-Messenger System 296

Pituitary Gland 299

Pituitary Hormones 299 Hypothalamic Control of the Posterior

Pituitary 301 Hypothalamic Control of the Anterior Pituitary 301 Releasing and Inhibiting Hormones 301

Feedback Control of the Anterior

Pituitary 303 Higher Brain Function and Pituitary Secretion 304

Adrenal Glands 305

Functions of the Adrenal Cortex 306 Functions of the Adrenal Medulla 307 Stress and the Adrenal Gland 307

Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands 308

Production and Action of Thyroid Hormones 309 Diseases of the Thyroid 309 Parathyroid Glands 311

Pancreas and Other Endocrine Glands 312

Pancreatic Islets (Islets of Langerhans) 312 Pineal Gland 314 Thymus 315

Gastrointestinal Tract 315 Gonads and Placenta 315

Autocrine and Paracrine Regulation 316

Examples of Autocrine Regulation 316 Prostaglandins 317

Examples of Prostaglandin Actions 318 Inhibitors of Prostaglandin Synthesis 318

Interactions 319

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