Related Websites

Check out the Links Library at www.mhhe.com/fox8 for links to sites containing resources related to the digestive system. These links are monitored to ensure current URLs.

1Note: This question is answered in the chapter 18 Study Guide found on the Online Learning Center at www.mhhe.com/fox8.

relationship between thyroxine levels and the basal metabolic rate.

describe the regulation of eating and discuss the endocrine control of metabolism in general terms.

describe the effects of thyroxine on cell respiration and explain the relationship between thyroxine levels and the basal metabolic rate.

describe the regulation of eating and discuss the endocrine control of metabolism in general terms.

8. explain how insulin and glucagon regulate metabolism during feeding and fasting.

describe the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and explain how these conditions are produced.

10. describe the metabolic effects of epinephrine and the glucocorticoids.

describe the effects of thyroxine on cell respiration and explain the describe the symptoms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, and explain how these conditions are produced.

describe the metabolic effects of growth hormone and explain why growth hormone and thyroxine are needed for proper body growth.

describe the actions of parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and calcitonin, and explain how the secretion of these hormones is regulated.

describe how 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is produced and explain why this compound is needed to prevent osteomalacia and rickets.

Chapter at a Glance

Nutritional Requirements

Metabolic Rate and Caloric Requirements 598 Anabolic Requirements 599 Vitamins and Minerals 601 Water-Soluble Vitamins 601 Fat-Soluble Vitamins 601 Minerals (Elements) 602 Free Radicals and Antioxidants 602

Regulation of Energy Metabolism 604

Eating 604

Regulatory Functions of Adipose Tissue Development of Adipose Tissue 605 Regulatory Functions of Adipocytes 606 Regulation of Hunger 606 Low Adiposity: Starvation 607 Obesity 608 Caloric Expenditures 608 Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism 609

Energy Regulation by the Islets of Langerhans 611

Regulation of Insulin and Glucagon Secretion 611 Effects of Glucose and Amino Acids Effects of Autonomic Nerves 613 Effects of Intestinal Hormones 613 Insulin and Glucagon: Absorptive State 613 Insulin and Glucagon: Postabsorptive State 613

Diabetes Mellitus and Hypoglycemia 615

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 616

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Hypoglycemia 618

Metabolic Regulation by Adrenal Hormones,Thyroxine, and Growth Hormone 618

Adrenal Hormones 619

Metabolic Effects of Catecholamines Metabolic Effects of Glucocorticoids Thyroxine 620 Growth Hormone 621

Regulation of Growth Hormone

Secretion 621 Insulin-like Growth Factors 621 Effects of Growth Hormone on

Metabolism 621 Effects of Growth Hormone on Body Growth 622

Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate Balance 623

Bone Deposition and Resorption 623 Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin 624 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 625 Negative Feedback Control of Calcium and Phosphate Balance 627

Summary 628 Review Activities 630 Related Websites 631

Clinical Investigation

Phyllis is a 44-year-old legal secretary who is moderately overweight. After weeks of complaining to her friends and family of her nausea, headaches, frequent urination, and continuous thirst, she decides to go to a physician. In the course of reporting her medical history, she mentions that both her mother and uncle are diabetics. She provides a sample of urine, which does not give evidence of glycosuria. She is told to return the next day to provide a fasting blood sample. When this sample is analyzed, her fasting blood glucose concentration is measured at 150 mg/dl. An oral glucose tolerance test is subsequently performed, and a blood glucose concentration of 220 mg/dl is measured 2 hours following the ingestion of the glucose solution.

The physician places her on a weight-reduction program and advises her to begin a mild but regular exercise regimen. He tells her that he will prescribe pills for her if the diet and exercise are not effective in relieving her symptoms. What diagnosis did the physician make? Why did he make this diagnosis and subsequent recommendations? What pills might he prescribe?

Chapter Nineteen

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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