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explain how the vasa recta function in countercurrent exchange.

describe the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid-base balance.

describe active transport and osmosis in the loop of Henle and explain how these processes produce a countercurrent multiplier system.

explain how the vasa recta function in countercurrent exchange.

define the term renal plasma clearance and explain why the clearance of inulin is equal to the glomerular filtration rate.

explain how the clearance of different molecules is determined and how the processes of reabsorption and secretion affect the clearance measurement.

describe the mechanism of Na+ reabsorption in the distal tubule and explain why this reabsorption occurs together with the secretion of K+.

describe the effects of aldosterone on the cortical portion of the collecting duct and explain how aldosterone secretion is regulated.

explain how activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system results in the stimulation of aldosterone secretion.

explain how the interaction between plasma K+ and H+ concentrations affects the tubular secretion of these ions.

describe the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid-base balance.

describe the different mechanisms by which substances can act as diuretics and explain why some diuretics cause excessive loss of K+.

Fox: Human Physiology, I 17. Physiology of the I Text I I © The McGraw-Hill

Eighth Edition Kidneys Companies, 2003

Chapter at a Glance

Structure and Function of the Kidneys 524

Gross Structure of the Urinary System 524

Micturition Reflex 525 Microscopic Structure of the Kidney 526 Renal Blood Vessels 526 Nephron Tubules 526

Glomerular Filtration 529

Glomerular Ultrafiltrate 529 Regulation of Glomerular Filtration Rate 531 Sympathetic Nerve Effects 531 Renal Autoregulation 531

Reabsorption of Salt and Water 532

Reabsorption in the Proximal Tubule 532 Active and Passive Transport 532 Significance of Proximal Tubule Reabsorption 533 The Countercurrent Multiplier System 534 Ascending Limb of the Loop of Henle 534 Descending Limb of the Loop of

Henle 534 Countercurrent Multiplication 534 Vasa Recta 535 Effects of Urea 536 Collecting Duct: Effect of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) 536

Renal Plasma Clearance 539

Transport Processes Affecting Renal Clearance 539 Tubular Secretion of Drugs 540 Renal Clearance of Inulin: Measurement of GFR 540 Clearance Calculations 542 Clearance of Urea 542

Clearance of PAH: Measurement of Renal

Blood Flow 543 Reabsorption of Glucose 543 Glycosuria 544

Renal Control of Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance 544

Role of Aldosterone in Na+/K+ Balance 544 Sodium Reabsorption 544 Potassium Secretion 545 Control of Aldosterone Secretion 545 Juxtaglomerular Apparatus 545 Regulation of Renin Secretion 545 Role of the Macula Densa 546 Atrial Natriuretic Peptide 546 Relationship Between Na+, K+, and H+ 546 Renal Acid-Base Regulation 548 Reabsorption of Bicarbonate in the

Proximal Tubule 548 Urinary Buffers 549

Clinical Applications 549

Use of Diuretics 549 Renal Function Tests and Kidney Disease Acute Renal Failure 551 Glomerulonephritis 551 Renal Insufficiency 552

Interactions 553

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