As blood passes through the kidneys, some of the constituents of the plasma are removed and excreted in the urine. The blood is thus "cleared," to some extent, of particular solutes in the process of urine formation.These solutes may be removed from the blood by filtration through the glomerular capillaries or by secretion by the tubular cells into the filtrate. At the same time, certain molecules in the tubular fluid can be reabsorbed back into the blood.
One of the major functions of the kidneys is to eliminate excess ions and waste products from the blood. Clearing the blood of these substances is accomplished through their excretion in the urine. Because of renal clearance, the concentrations of these substances in the blood leaving the kidneys (in the renal vein) is lower than their concentrations in the blood entering the kidneys (in the renal artery).
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