Test Your Ability to Analyze and Apply Your Knowledge

1. Shock is the medical condition that results when body tissues do not receive enough oxygen-carrying blood. It is characterized by low blood flow to the brain, leading to decreased levels of consciousness. Why would a patient with a cervical spinal cord injury be at risk of going into shock?

2. A person in shock may have pale, cold, and clammy skin and a rapid and weak pulse. What is the role of the autonomic nervous system in producing these symptoms? Discuss how drugs that influence autonomic activity might be used to treat someone in shock.

Imagine yourself at the starting block of the 100-meter dash of the Olympics. The gun is about to go off in the biggest race of your life. What is the autonomic nervous system doing at this point? How are your organs responding?

Some patients with hypertension (high blood pressure) are given beta-blocking drugs to lower their blood pressure. How does this effect occur?

c. medulla oblongata d. cerebellum

10. The two subtypes of cholinergic receptors are a. adrenergic and nicotinic.

b. dopaminergic and muscarinic.

c. nicotinic and muscarinic.

d. nicotinic and dopaminergic.

11. A fall in cyclic AMP within the target cell occurs when norepinephrine binds to which of adrenergic receptors?

12. A drug that serves as an agonist for a2 receptors can be used to a. increase the heart rate.

b. decrease the heart rate.

c. dilate the bronchioles.

d. constrict the bronchioles.

e. constrict the blood vessels.

7. Explain what is meant by nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors and describe the distribution of these receptors in the body.

8. Give examples of drugs that selectively stimulate and block the nicotinic and muscarinic receptors and explain how these drugs are used clinically.

Explain why these drugs are not administered to patients with a history of asthma. Why might drinking coffee help asthma?

5. Why do many cold medications contain an alpha-adrenergic agonist and atropine (belladonna)? Why is there a label warning for people with hypertension? Why would a person with gastritis be given a prescription for atropine? Explain how this drug might affect the ability to digest and absorb food.

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