Improving Your Sex Life

Revive Her Drive

Be ready to go through a complete transformation in the way that you think and feel about having sex with your wife or girlfriend! Revive Her Drive is like a Cheat Sheet to woo your woman the way she secretly wants you to, and simply cant express. The solution is based on female-friendly, easy-to-learn strategies that she will love! How nice will that moment be when shes lying in your arms, happy and spent, and she actually Thanks You for helping her to rediscover her sensual self? Shell be grateful that you, Her Man, now that you have the vision and skill to guide her into new, electrifying experiences even if she fights you or resists you now. Women Are sensual creatures. We women want pleasure, intimacy, connection, sensation as much as you do! Ill prove this to you. Once you know how to captivate her, you can turn her into a pleasure-seeking device within 24 hours. Getting that kind of responsiveness is the feedback you need to feel confident this program is working. Discover how Robert rekindled his relationship with Lauren using the tools within Revive Her Drive by watching this short presentation that lays out the whole strategy youll use to transform your intimate life into one of passion, surrender and fantasies-come-true. Read more...

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Male copulatory behavior

Here I will present a description of the behavior. The neural and endocrine mechanisms involved are the subjects of a later chapter. Male copulatory behavior is a sequence of stereotyped motor patterns ending in ejaculation, the expulsion of seminal fluid. Some species may make several ejaculations in a row. During the time when I worked with rabbits, our champion once made 17 ejaculations during a 30-minute test. He had received no treatment whatsoever. It was his spontaneous level of sexual activity he had shown for us. Rats are less active and normally become unresponsive to a female after 5-10 ejaculations. They normally require several hours to achieve that. The human is still less active. In fact, most men stop copulatory activity after the first ejaculation. Occasionally, a second or even a third ejaculation may be achieved before abandoning copulatory activity, but that seems to be quite unusual. Although there may be a substantial variability between species with regard to...

Female copulatory behavior

A sexually receptive female rat will quietly approach a male and within a rather short distance of him (about one body length) she will turn away and make a short, fast run and then suddenly stop with her hind quarters raised. This behavior pattern is called solicitation (McClintock et al., 1982 McClintock and Anisko, 1982). It is a very important part of the female's copulatory behavior in seminatural conditions, like those used by Martha McClintock in her very elegant studies. A most interesting observation is that more than 90 of sexual interactions are initiated by a female solicitation (McClintock and Adler, 1978). The male initiated only 3 of the interactions. In the remaining 7 it was unclear who the initiator was. This is true not only for the initial mounting episode, but also for the entire sequence of mounts with and without intromissions leading to ejaculation. It appears, then, that the female is in control of the pace of copulatory interactions from the first mount until...

Female snow monkeys like to have sex with other females

There are numerous accounts of sexual behaviors between females of a primate species called Macaca fuscata, Japanese macaque, or snow monkey (for a review see Vasey, 2002a). There is nothing peculiar with this. Sexual activities between individuals of the same sex are very common among mammals, as mentioned so many times that I start to feel ashamed of repeating it once more. However, one peculiarity with female snow monkeys is that they form temporary female-female associations lasting from less than one hour up to over a week. These associations have been termed 'consortships' (Wolfe, 1983). Typical of these consortships is a rather intense sexual activity where the females mount each other. One study reports a mean of 31 mounts per hour of observation (Vasey, 2002b). Furthermore, while 55 of the females formed this kind of sexual association with other females, only 45 formed sexual associations with males. These data demonstrate that there is a substantial extent of sexual...

Acceptability of samesex behaviors and the role of willfulness

I have repeatedly pointed out that all sexual activities not involving penile-vaginal intercourse inevitably are non-reproductive. From the Christian perspective, they are sins. From the biological perspective, they are inadaptive. I have also repeatedly mentioned that many sexual activities other than penile-vaginal intercourse are not only sins for the churches and inadaptive for the biologists, but they have also been, and some are still, included in the penal codes of many countries. All these facts need to be added to the social opprobrium still provoked by some sexual activities. While cunnilingus and fellatio appear to be generally accepted as legitimate sexual behaviors in most civilized countries, this is not always the case for sex with individuals of the same sex, and particularly not for sex with prepu-bertal individuals. Still worse evidently is sex with prepubertal individuals of one's own sex. Sex between adult individuals of the same sex appears to be well accepted in...

Copulatory behavior in men and women

Stages Coital

Throughout history there have been many descriptions of human copulatory behavior. Most of them belong to the fine arts, some to pornography and a few to the medical sciences. Descriptions satisfying some minimum requirements of objectivity and accuracy are more rare. Without discrediting the early pioneers in sex research, I will start my analysis of copulatory behavior with the extraordinary data collected by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues and published in two landmark books (Kinsey et al., 1948, 1953). Those interested in research on human sexuality prior to the Kinsey studies can find an excellent summary in a charming book (Bullough, 1994). However, there is one extremely interesting text preceding the Kinsey era that I cannot avoid mentioning. In 1926, the Dutch gynecologist, Theodoor Henrik van de Velde, published an account of human sexual behavior (van de Velde, 1965 I have had access only to a reprint of the 1926 edition. All following citations refer to the 1965 reprint),...

What Constitutes Capacity to Consent to Sexual Relationships

Precisely what constitutes capacity to consent to sexual activity is unclear in many jurisdictions, even though the definition of capacity is crucial in establishing a balance between a proper empowerment to exercise sexual rights and effective protection from abuse. Clearly, the higher the requirement for knowledge and understanding, the better protection from abuse but the more that people with a 'mental disorder' may be prevented from exercising their sexual rights. In most European countries, there is no requirement that someone engaging in sexual activity should exercise 'informed consent' of the kind required for medical treatment (i.e. to be informed and to choose voluntarily). As a result, there seems to be no need, in law, for a person to demonstrate that he or she understands the nature of sexual activity, its benefits and risks and possible alternatives. If there were such requirements, people would presumably need to understand and differentiate between sexual intercourse,...

Rams sometimes prefer to have sex with other rams

There are more data on preference for individuals of the same sex among rams. The first description of a same-sex preference in rams was based on a total of eight subjects, four of which copulated with ewes with the intensity that rams usually show, while the other four showed little interest. All animals were then tested in an enclosure where a sexually receptive ewe and a ram were tethered to opposite sides. It turned out that the four copulating rams approached the ewes much more than the rams, while the reverse was the case for the four rams that did not copulate with the ewes in the preceding test. It was concluded that rams displaying low or no sexual activity with ewes do so because they prefer rams (Zenchak et al., 1981). All the subjects in this study had been raised in all male groups. An interesting observation is that the ram-preferring rams had engaged in significantly more sexual activities with other rams than those preferring ewes (Zenchak and Anderson, 1980). This...

Sexual intercourse

Unprotected sexual intercourse is the most important transmission route of HIV infection worldwide. Although receptive anal sex is estimated to produce the highest risk of infection, infection after a single insertive contact has also been described. The presence of other sexually transmitted diseases markedly increases the risk of becoming infected with HIV.

Copulatory behaviors

I will present the fundamental elements of sexual behavior in reverse order. First we will examine copulatory behavior, the series of reflexes or fixed action patterns that usually are activated or executed in association with sperm deposit in the female's vagina or uterus. Please note that this statement refers to copulatory behaviors in non-human mammals. We have already learned that human sexual interactions do not necessarily end in intravaginal sperm deposit. We have also, at least implicitly, noted that human sexual behaviors are far less stereotyped than those found in other mammals. The discussion beginning here and continuing over the next several pages refers, consequently, mainly to non-human copulatory behavior. In fact, due to the rather important difference between human and non-human copulatory activities with regard to variability and flexibility of behavior patterns, I have found it convenient to analyze human behavior in a separate section. In the male mammal, the...

Sex Therapy

Like homosexuality, sex problems and their treatment are no longer taboo topics. They are widely discussed in the media, the movies, and by medical experts throughout the world. The importance of good health care, proper nutrition, and appropriate medications to the maintenance of an active sex life are generally recognized. Moderation in the intake of food, coffee, alcohol, and tobacco proper exercise protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and an awareness that if you do not use it, you will lose it are recommended ( Sexuality and Aging, 1997). Perhaps most important of all are love and respect for one's sexual partner and acceptance of sex as normal and desirable at all ages. The rapid but effective treatment of sexual inadequacy was pioneered by Masters and Johnson (1970). Many of the patients seen by them and their students were older adults who had stopped having sexual intercourse because of a misunderstanding about the normal biological changes that accompany...

Causeeffect relationships

Within the behavioral sciences, the principles outlined in the preceding paragraphs have been dominant in the behaviorist, neobehaviorist and radical behav-iorist traditions. The splendid learning theories of Hull (1943) and Spence (1956) are good examples of how behavior has been carefully analyzed in terms of cause-effect. Skinner has taken that tradition a step further in his insistence of act - consequence (cause-effect) as the basic principle determining most of human and non-human behavior. I maintain that sexual behavior in mice and men also can be analyzed and understood in terms of cause-effect relationship. I also insist on Hume's criteria of contiguity and conjunction. Since reproduction (birth of the young) is non-contiguous with sex behavior, it can have no causal relationship to it. This argument lacks force, though, if with reproduction we understand fertilization. Although not simultaneous, fertilization is always temporally associated with sex behavior. What is far...

The biological analysis of sexual behavior in the context of evolution and natural selection

The reproductive consequences of sexual acts are thus paramount in any analysis of sexual behavior as soon as a biologist is involved. It is tacitly or explicitly assumed that evolution has assured that sexual behavior is as efficient as possible for fertilization to occur. An analysis of sex behavior in terms of biological function and evolution rests on some or all of the following assumptions This means that all kinds of sexual behavior patterns not leading to fertilization should have been eliminated through the course of evolution. Furthermore, no one would engage in sexual activity if fertilization were not at least potentially possible. Non-fertile sex carries a cost to the individual but no benefit and any tendency to engage in such behavior should have been disadvantageous and eliminated through the process of natural selection. Finally, the behavior patterns expressed should be efficient for assuring the union of gametes with the least cost possible. That probably...

If sex is not for reproduction what is it for

Since no animal mates in order to reproduce, but animals must mate in the service of species survival, we are faced with the problem of identifying the source of reward or positive reinforcement which impels individuals to copulate. The problem has scarcely been recognized as far as sexual activity is concerned (Beach, 1976, p. 471). If individuals engage in sexual behavior not because they feel an urge to reproduce or to obey the religious principle of 'multiply' but because they want to experience the positive affect inherent in sexual activities, then sex ceases to be a reproductive activity and turns into a recreative activity like going to the theater, riding a roller coaster or playing bridge. This notion could have tremendous implications for society's views on sexuality but none for sexual behavior. In fact, humans and other animals have always had sex for the fun of it. Undoubtedly, many humans have made and make efforts to obey the many rules established by society, biology,...

Assessment of Sexual Behavior

Sexuality is essential to human life, experienced through individual thoughts and desires, behaviors, relationships, and cultures (Robinson et al, 2002 WHO, 2006). A responsible, safe, and fulfilling sexual life experience requires a positive approach to sexuality and an understanding of the social, economic, and political factors (e.g., gender inequality and poverty) that may lead to sexual ill-health (WHO, 2006). Sexual well-being involves positive sexual expression, coupled with the possibility of satisfying and safe sexual experiences. To promote sexual health, public policy experts, health educators, physicians, and clinicians, benefit from extensive knowledge and understanding of sexual behavior including sexual aspects of relationships (e.g., sexual arousal and functioning). behavior, these markers are incomplete because they convey little information about the frequency, number of sexual partners, and the co-occurrence of sexual behavior with other behaviors (e.g., alcohol or...

Reasons for Measuring Sexual Behavior

Sexual expression is a fundamental aspect of human relationships. While most research has focused on the problems, risks, and dangers of sex, there are a number of physiological and psychological benefits of sexual expression (Whipple, 2006). For example, frequent sexual activity increases fertility (Cutler et al, 1985), the probability of conception (Wilcox et al, 1995), and improves sexual functioning and satisfaction (Laumann et al, 2006 Parish et al, 2007). Benefits aside, consequences related to sexual activity (e.g., sexual coercion, HIV) may threaten an individual's ability to have satisfying sexual experiences. Accurate, reliable, and valid self-reports of sexual behavior provide essential information to assist researchers and interventionists in developing efficacious programs to improve sexual health.

General Health Benefits

Studies examining the benefits of sexual activity on physical health have suggested sexual activity improves physical and psychological health in a number of domains. Sexual activity (1) Increases longevity Men with increased orgasmic frequency (i.e., had sex at least two times per week) had a 50 lower risk of mortality at a 10-year follow-up (Davey Smith et al, 1997) (2) Lowers the risk of chronic disease (e.g., heart disease and cancer) Among men, frequency of sex was associated with a lower risk of fatal coronary heart disease (Ebrahim et al, 2002). Furthermore, a national survey of US men found high ejaculation frequency (i.e., 21 ejaculations per month) was associated with decreased risk of total prostate cancer (Leitzmann et al, 2004) (3) Increases immunity Increased levels of immunoglobulin A, an essential antibody used by the immune system to protect against viral infections, were found in college students reporting having sex at least three times per week (Charnetski and...

Sexual Health Outcomes

Prior research suggests sexual health and well-being are directly related to sexual behavior. Sexual experiences (e.g., frequency of sex or orgasm) have been associated with both positive and negative aspects of sexual and reproductive health. Among other benefits, fertility and conception are two ways by which sexual activity may have a positive effect on sexual health. Researchers have shown frequent vaginal sex (i.e., at least weekly) is associated with increased fertility (Cutler et al, 1985) women who have sex daily during their fertile period (i.e., five consecutive days in a woman's menstrual cycle culminating with a sixth day of ovulation) had a 37 chance of conceiving compare to a 15 chance among women having sex once during the same period (Wilcox et al, 1995). Moreover, frequent sexual activity, including sexual intercourse and orgasm, are positively associated with sexual and Despite the benefits, sexual health is undermined by intimate partner violence (e.g., sexual...

Assessment of Sexual Behavior How to Gather the Data

Biological outcomes (e.g., STI or pregnancy) can confirm sexual activity but provides limited information regarding the prevalence, frequency, or problems associated with sexual behavior. Both positive and negative effects of sexual expression vary depending on a number of highly complex contextual factors. Information regarding the prevalence of specific behaviors is contingent upon accurate, reliable, and valid self-reports of sexual behavior (Catania et al, 1990 Schroder et al, 2003b). Thus researchers need to make two fundamental decisions when they decide to assess sexual behavior How to gather the data What data to collect

On the importance of the distinction between approach behaviors and the execution of copulatory reflexes

Sexual interaction, potentially leading to sperm deposit, is impossible at a distance. Two or more individuals need to be in close proximity before sperm transfer can occur. The establishment of the required proximity must inevitably precede the activation of copulatory behavior. The ways in which humans and other animals succeed in establishing this proximity is extremely variable. In fact, it is safe to propose that proximity is established by a series of entirely arbitrary behaviors as already pointed out in the previous section. Whereas copulatory behavior is very stereotyped in all mammals, with the exception of the human, behaviors leading to proximity are extremely varied. They are determined by an interplay between the specific context and individual experience. The importance of proximity as a requisite for copulation cannot be overestimated. For many animals, and perhaps particularly for the human, copulation is a far lesser problem than finding with whom to copulate....

Measures of Sexual Behavior What to Gather

Although there has been a lack of consensus regarding the best method of assessing self-reports of sexual behaviors, some researchers have suggested focusing on using measures that are most appropriate for the specific context or goal of the research (e.g., risk screening, risk assessment, and risk event) (Noar et al, 2006 Patterson and Strathdee, 2005 Weinhardt et al, 1998b). For instance, if the goal is to assess the overall frequency of condom use among members of a specific community (e.g., among homeless adolescents), the researcher might ask global questions regarding the number of times a participant had sex and their overall frequency of condom use during a specific reporting period (e.g., past 3 months). Alternatively, if the goal is to assess the risk of HIV within the same community, a researcher might ask participants specific questions regarding the co-occurrence of sexual risk behavior (e.g., sex without a condom, alcohol and or drug use prior to sex). Accurate...

Cognition and Memory Challenges

To enhance recall of retrospective self-reports, Weinhardt et al (1998) suggest using three strategies (1) Provide anchor dates for recall periods, (2) Encourage participant to use calendars to aid the recall of memorable events, and (3) Prompt participant recall of extensive periods of sexual behavior (e.g., abstinence, consistent sexual activities). All three of the suggested strategies may be accomplished using the timeline follow-back (TFLB Sobell and Sobell, 1996) procedure. The TLFB uses calendars marked with landmark events, personally meaningful dates, and other memory aides to facilitate accurate recall. Because of the interactive format used for the TLFB, memory is aided by the recalling of one event in reference to another event. Using the TLFB, behavioral patterns are recorded in greater detail and over multiple time points. Sexual risk information yielded by the TLFB include number of sexual partners, frequency of sexual events (vaginal, anal, oral), frequency of...

Autonomic Dysfunction and Management

Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is commonly regarded as a disorder of dopamine deficiency, it is actually a multisystem degenerative disorder. As nondopaminergic brain pathways are involved in the genesis of many symptoms, these cannot be successfully treated by merely increasing brain dopaminergic stimulation. The auto-nomic symptoms fall into this category, and thus management is often challenging. The autonomic features of PD affect cardiovascular function, gastrointestinal (GI) motility, urinary bladder function, sexual ability, and thermal regulation. A list of the common symptoms and signs of autonomic dysfunction is shown in Table 1. Although symptoms of autonomic failure typically present later in the course of the disease, rare case reports exist of autonomic abnormalities as the presenting feature (1). This chapter will outline the common autonomic features of PD and discuss treatment approaches for each.

Presentation of Germ Cell Tumors

The swelling within the testis may be noticed by the patient or his sexual partner. The presence of tes-ticular atrophy, which is a predisposing factor for GCT, may make the swelling more readily apparent. Atrophy of the testis can occur as a result of cryp-torchidism (especially when it has not been corrected until late childhood), infection (particularly mumps orchitis), or torsion or local trauma. Some men with testicular tumors and atrophic testes may present to an infertility clinic and be diagnosed on examination in that setting.2

Eastern Europe and Central Asia

New diagnoses among injection drug users, female sex workers, and men who have sex with men are reported from testing in other Central Asian countries, including Republic of Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekisan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan. 79 of infections in the region are caused by subtype A and 15 by subtype B. CRF03_AB is found only in this region (12).

Latin America and the Caribbean

HIV infections in Latin America are reported mostly among men who have sex with men, injection drug users, and sex workers, but has also increased among the women in the general population of Brazil and Uruguay. Brazil, the most populous country in Latin America, has an adult HIV prevalence of 0.5 and comprises almost 30 of the population living with HIV in South and Central America and the Caribbean. High-risk behavior is still widely reported among young Brazilians with almost one-third reporting sexual debut prior to age 15, and 20 of young Brazilians aged 15-24 reporting greater than ten sexual partners. Approximately 73 of the estimated 400,000 people in need of antiretroviral therapy in Latin America received it in 2005. Brazil provides free antiretroviral therapy to those in need of treatment, and approximately 83 of HIV-infected persons receive therapy. Subtype B infections predominate in Latin America, with a smaller representation of subtypes C and F and recombinants...

North America and Western Europe

In the developed world, including the United States and Europe, the HIV incidence rate dropped every year until the late 1990s when it stabilized translating into about 65,000 new infections in North America and Western and Central Europe. A total of approximately 2.1 million people are living with HIV infection in these regions. The rate has not continued to decline largely in part to a rising prevalence rate among immigrants, migrants, ethnic minority groups, and men who have sex with men. Men account for 74 of HIV infections in the United States. Half of new infections in the United States in 2005 were among men who have sex with men, 32 among women, and 18 among injection drug users (17). Racial and ethnic minorities, particularly African Americans and Latinos, represent 48 and 18 of new infections, respectively. There is a particular need for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment services in these populations. In the United States, there has been reported evidence of...

Ultrasonic vocalizations in rats

From a comparative perspective it could be most useful to examine ultrasonic vocalizations in closely related species. Many important questions could be asked and we have sufficient data to answer them. One such question is whether vocalizations are also a male prerogative in other species. Another is whether vocalizations influence copulatory behavior and or the incentive properties of the post-ejaculatory interval. The first description of these calls comes from a study where rats were allowed to copulate until exhaustion (Brown, 1979). When approaching the fifth ejaculation males began to emit these calls. The appearance of the 22 kHz calls coincided with an increase in the number of mounts without intromission. The males actually mounted more but intromitted less. An analysis of the behavior of the female partner showed that this was caused by a lessened tendency to display lordosis in response to male mounting. Furthermore, the females showed more aggressive responses (turning...

The Clinical Assessment Of Identity

The second step of this interview explores the patient's present life situation, including his or her adaptation to work or a profession, the patient's love life and sexual experiences, the family of origin, the patient's friendships, interests, creative pursuits, leisure activities, and social life in general. It also explores the patient's relation to society and culture, particularly ideological and religious interests, and his or her relationship to sports, arts, and hobbies. In short, we attempt to obtain as full a picture as possible of the patient's present life situation and interactions, raising questions whenever any aspect of the patient's present life situation seems obscure, contradictory, or problematic. This inquiry complements the earlier step of exploration of symptoms and, at the same time, makes it possible to compare the patient's assessment of his or her life situation and potential challenges and problems with the patient's interaction with the diagnostician as...

Conclusions concerning auditory sexual incentive stimuli ultrasonic vocalizations in rodents

A lesson we can learn from our analysis of ultrasonic vocalizations has to do with their uncertain function in relation to sexual behavior. They may contribute to an animal's incentive value, but the data are scarce and mixed. Vocalizations do not appear to modulate copulatory behavior in any functionally relevant way. Despite this, almost every paper on the subject ends with a long list of the possible functions of ultrasonic vocalizations. This is natural, since most scientists certainly want their work to have some meaning. It might appear rather ridiculous to invest large efforts and much time in a long series of experiments just to conclude that the subject of study was, at the end, a non-subject. This applies, evidently, not only to studies of vocalizations and sex, but to all areas of scientific inquiry. It might be insinuated, though, that a more rational approach would have been to first establish the function of these vocalizations and then proceed with studies of their...

CoInfection with Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is a blood-borne infection, transmitted through contaminated blood, injection drug use equipment, and, less efficiently, through sexual intercourse. Prevalence of hepatitis C among the HIV-infected population is about 30 worldwide, but can vary from 10.4 in an Asian Pacific cohort (TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database) (20) to 51 in a largely injection drug use population in Columbia, Canada (21). In the United States and Europe, estimates are that 25 of HIVpositive individuals have hepatitis C infection as well. More recently, acute hepatitis C outbreaks are being reported among men who have sex with men (21, 22). Hepatitis C infection has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality concomitant with the decline in HIV-related morbidity and mortality associated with effective antiretroviral treatment.

The main olfactory system

The role of olfaction, that is to say of the main olfactory system, in sexual behavior is not much better known than that of the vomeronasal system. If, to make things easy, we start with its role in copulatory behavior, a review of existing data tells us that the importance of the main olfactory system is modest. We have already insinuated that the elimination of olfactory input has variable effects. Early studies (Stone, 1922) showed that anosmia did not modify the copulatory behavior of male rats, not even in their first encounter with a receptive female. This observation was confirmed about 50 years later (Cain and Paxinos, 1974). However, later studies have not always replicated this observation. For example, Bergvall et al. (1991) reported that peripheral anosmia reduced the intensity of male rat copulatory behavior when the subjects had been anosmic for a month. After one week, though, their behavior was unaffected. Anosmia-induced degeneration of neurons in the olfactory bulb...

Unusual Characteristics Of Sex Chromosomes And Mitochondria

If they do, this would explain why one sex must contribute all of the mitochondria. It can be used as an argument that there should only be two sexes. In fact, however, cases are known where organisms have more than two sexes. The slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, has 13 sexes. However, these turn out to be hierarchical. When two sexes mate, the higher one on the hierarchy donates its mitochondria to the offspring. This ensures that only one parental set of mitochondria survive. So one important thing about sex is who you get your mitochondria from.

Visual incentive stimuli

The widespread conviction that odors are basic for non-human copulatory behaviors has led to a neglect of vision. Furthermore, blinding animals is not a standard procedure in any animal behavior laboratory and it would probably be difficult to convince an ethics committee about the urgency of studying copulatory behavior in blinded animals. It is particularly so, since the limited amount of available data suggest that visual stimuli are unimportant for copulatory behavior in the species where they have been studied. Blind rats show a completely normal behavior (Stone, 1922, 1923 Beach, 1942) and so do blind humans as far as I know.

General conclusion concerning sexual incentive stimuli in nonhuman animals

Auditory stimuli seem to be of limited importance. Most research effort has been focused on the elucidation of the role of high frequency vocalizations in rodents in the control of copulatory behavior. It appears that their function, if any, is limited to modulate the frequency of some proceptive behaviors in female rats. Concerning sexual incentive motivation, we have too few experimental data for daring to propose any function at all. At the same time, it would be premature to conclude that high frequency vocalizations have no function. Nevertheless, for the moment it seems appropriate to suggest that the role of auditory stimuli, and consequently hearing, in copulatory behavior and in sexual incentive motivation is limited. Turning to olfactory systems, it seems warranted to pose that the vomeronasal system is unimportant for sexual incentive motivation in both sexes, while it may influence some aspects of copulatory behavior. The most consistent sequel of vomeronasal organ removal...

Relevance for vertebrate systems

To link sexual karyotype to the development of sex-specific characteristics. Arnold has proposed that regulatory genes on the X (that escape dosage compensation) and Y chromosomes may directly organize sex-specific CNS characteristics (Arnold, 2004). Indeed, there is some evidence that the Y-chromosome sex-determining gene Sry has such a role in the nervous system (Dewing et al., 2006). However, such a model may capture only one aspect of this process. It is also quite possible that sexual karyotype controls much more complex regulatory networks, such as those characteristic of C. elegans and Drosophila sex determination, that read the sex-determining signal and set into motion a cascade of interactions that only very indirectly lead to sex-specific gene expression. The potential existence of such a pathway in the mammalian nervous system has intriguing implications for the mechanisms that bring about sex differences in neuroanatomy and neural function moreover, genes in such a...

Enhanced genital blood flow

In the human, the situation may be similar. Particularly young men, and sometimes men not so young any more, get an erection in response to an incentive even in situations where sexual interaction is excluded from the outset. Reading a pornographic magazine could be such a situation. It is extremely unlikely, if not outright impossible, that the man reading it expects the lady on the photograph to materialize before him and propose sexual intercourse. He can have fantasies of that sort, but that is a question we will not address now. Just as the rat, he responds with erection to stimuli emitted by an inaccessible female. It should not be controversial to propose that men frequently display visceral reactions to sexual incentives long before actual sexual interaction takes place as well as in the absence of the possibility of such interactions. There are much data showing that this kind of response is not limited to men. In healthy women, enhanced genital blood flow is Another way to...

Sexual incentive properties of odors

Similarly, the existence of conditioned olfactory stimuli with sexual incentive properties in the human is unknown. While we know that visual or auditory stimuli with sexual content enhance genital blood flow, there is no published study showing that an olfactory stimulus can have this effect. The closest approximation is a study where young women, as always undergraduates, were asked to read either an explicit account of a sexual encounter between a man and a woman on a train or a story about a French journalist. There was no sexual content in the story about the journalist. Half of the subjects were invited to wear a mask impregnated with 300 ig of androstenol and the other half wore a control mask. The mask covered the mouth and the nose, assuring that the steroid reached the olfactory epithelium. After having finished reading, the subjects answered a questionnaire evaluating sexual arousal and some other mental events. Results showed that androstenol had...

Dorothy Tennovs concept of limerence as an approximation to sexual incentive motivation

Additional arguments for considering limerence as a kind of sexual incentive motivation could come from an examination of the factors that end or reduce it. In non-human mammals, the execution of copulatory behavior is known to reduce the intensity of motivation, at least temporally. However, this does not appear to be the case with limerence. On the contrary, a majority of subjects report enhanced limerence following the execution of copulatory behaviors. This contradiction can perhaps be solved taking into account that the experience of limerence, or of human sexual incentive motivation, is partially or entirely determined by social learning. The emotional experiences activated by intimate human relationships are strongly affected by the beliefs about such relationships commonly held by the members of the culture. One such belief is that sexual activity reinforces interindividual emotional bonds. If the limerent person establishes a lasting and committed relationship with the...

Human sexual incentives and social learning

Despite the rather cold reception of social constructionism in the field of sex research, its importance can hardly be overestimated. I will illustrate the force of the approach with the aid of an extremely simple example related to the similarity between sexual and ingestive behaviors as far as social construction is concerned. Ingestion is a part of human behavior that is far more important for survival than sexuality and ingestive behaviors are displayed more frequently than copulatory behaviors. In fact, many humans eat three times a day or even more, while few humans have sex three times a day and still fewer have sex more than that. In addition, we ingest liquids almost constantly. I have personally, in many European and American towns, seen people carrying water bottles attached to their belt, and I have even seen people drinking from this bottle in public. What is the role of biology versus social learning in the control of this behavior We can first look at when food and...

An unkind note on sociobiology or evolutionary psychology

Some of the central proposals in evolutionary psychology may be quite entertaining, as long as not taken seriously. Evolutionary psychologists suggest, for example, that since men make a modest investment in reproduction (a short copulation) compared to that of women (at least 9 months of pregnancy and some period of maternal care), it is most reasonable for a woman to take care of her child, while for a man it is more adaptive to impregnate as many women as possible. He will not care for the children anyway. Thus, a well-adapted woman should be a faithful housewife, caring for her children, while an equally well-adapted man should spend his time pursuing other women with the intention of having sex with them. Furthermore, he should not pursue just any woman, but preferably beautiful, young and healthy girls. Such women assure maximum health to their offspring and thereby maximize the probability of survival of the man's genes. Since the behavior patterns described above are the most...

The Extent of Misperceptions

Although the social norms approach was developed in the context of alcohol use and, consequently, has focused extensively on this issue, discrepancies between perceived and actual norms have been documented across a number of health behaviors. Individuals generally overestimate the prevalence of risky behaviors and underestimate the prevalence of protective behaviors. This pattern of findings has been replicated for drug use, including the use of tobacco, marijuana, and other illicit drugs (Perkins and Craig, 2003b). With respect to sexual behavior, condom use is underestimated, while levels of sexual activity are overestimated (Scholly et al, 2005). Finally, having bearing for body image disturbance and self-esteem, most women believe that the average woman is thinner than she is (Sanderson et al, 2002), and women inaccurately believe that men find overly thin women attractive (Bergstrom et al, 2004).

Endocrine control of sexual behavior

In the preceding chapters, I have given a summary of current knowledge of the stimulus control of sexual incentive motivation and copulatory behavior in some mammalian species including the human. Although knowledge is still lacking in some respects, we have a reasonably clear picture of how external stimuli control sexual behaviors. Now we will enter the world under the skin, particularly the world inside the skull, and there we will try to discover the tangible bases of the central motive state. It is not that I will try to materialize an abstract concept, but I will try to show that the brain needs to be exposed to some hormones in order to react to external stimuli with sexual responses, and I will try to show that these hormones act in specific brain structures when enabling them to these reactions.

Urethritis or cervicitis

Quinolones do not eradicate incubating syphilis. Evaluate and treat sexual partners. Test for syphilis and HIV. Due to increased prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae the CDC no longer recommends fluoroquinolones for the treatment of gonorrhea in men who have sex with men

Reproductive Biology

Form I is the sexually active stage, distinguished by enlarged claws, hooks at the base of some of the walking legs, and hardened gonopods. Following the reproductive season, males molt and revert to smaller-clawed Form II. Females store sperm and extrude eggs several weeks to months after mating. Eggs are brooded 2-3 weeks there are no free-swimming larval stages, and the hatchlings are recognizable as small crayfish. The young may stay with the mother for several weeks. There are typically two generations per year. Lifespan is 12-18 months in the wild.

Models of Differentiation

She hypothesised that for those sexual serial murderers where the role of victim was as an object, the crime scene behaviours would reflect few emotional elements with little interpersonal interaction. The offender would be unlikely to be influenced by the victims' responses, acting out a personal ritualised script, in which the victim plays no part as a human being. She also hypothesised that post-mortem injuries and sexual acts as well as excessive violence and dismemberment would co-occur with these other indicators of the 'victim as object'. Where the role of the victim is as a person, Hodge (in press) hypothesised that the crime scene behaviour will reflect the importance of the victim as a particular person. She proposes that this will be shown in the co-occurrence of variables that indicate the degree and style of interaction between the two. Excessive violence would be rare, sexual activity would be more likely to be 'normal' ones such as full sexual intercourse prior to death...

Development and Change

This is the essentially biological process of change in a person's physiology with age. Knowledge of what is typical of people at certain ages, such as sexual activity, can thus be used to form a view as to the maturity of the person committing the crimes and to the basis for longer-term variations in an individual's criminal activity.

The importance of testicular hormones in nonhuman males

Peasants have known that castration modifies the behavior of domestic animals for centuries. Bulls were turned into oxen for making them more manageable and males of some other species were castrated for improving the taste of their meat. This shows that both behavioral and physiological consequences of testicular products in non-human animals have been known for a long time. Despite the age-old popular knowledge, it was only about 100 years ago that the first experimental study of the behavioral consequences of testicular removal in a mammal was published. Male rats were castrated and their copulatory behavior was found to disappear after some time (Steinach, 1894). The disappearance of sexual behaviors after castration has been confirmed in many mammalian species, including the human as mentioned in the previous paragraphs. A question that immediately posed itself to the scientists performing these studies was what the testicles did in order to maintain sexual behavior. Those who...

The role of testosterone metabolites in nonhuman males

In the 1960s, it was discovered that a testosterone metabolite, 5a-dihydrotesto-sterone, was formed from circulating testosterone in peripheral target organs like the prostate or seminal vesicle. The enzyme responsible for the transformation of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone, 5a-reductase, was found to be present in target tissues. Dihydrotestosterone has a higher affinity for the testosterone receptor than testosterone itself and it was soon suggested that testosterone was a pre-hormone and that it needed to be transformed into dihydrotestosterone before having any physiological effect (Wilson and Gloyna, 1970). It was quite logical to suppose that this would also be the case for the actions of testosterone within the central nervous system, particularly since 5a-reductase had been shown to be present in the brain (Jaffe, 1969). To the surprise of many scientists, this was not the case. Dihydrotestosterone turned out to be quite inefficient for the restoration of copulatory...

The role of aromatization in men

Data concerning the role of aromatization in the human male are not abundant, but a few studies have determined the consequences of inhibition of aromatase. In one of them, six young (20-26 years) university students were treated with testo-lactone for 6 weeks in a dose that reduced plasma estradiol concentrations to less than 50 of pretreatment concentration. No effect on any indicator of sexual activity, like number of sexual acts, frequency of sexual thoughts or frequency of sexual excitement, was found (Gooren, 1985). These data suggest that aromatization is not a requisite for androgen actions on human male sexual behavior. This idea receives support from results obtained in other groups included in the same study. One group of 12 men was given the estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen for 12 weeks. Sexual activity was not affected. Another group of six 'agonadal' (probably meaning castrated) men, that were maintained on a treatment with testosterone undecanoate, a long-acting...

Detection of Id1 Overexpression in PCA in the Rat Model

Using this model, we studied the gene expression profile during prostate carcinogenesis using a cDNA array method. The results were confirmed by RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses. Seventeen genes were differentially expressed, and three of them with the highest level of overexpression were selected for further analysis. They included Testosterone-repressed prostatic message-2 (TRPM-2), matrix metalloproteinase-7, (MMP-7), and inhibitor ofdifferentiation or DNA binding (Id-1) (6). Increased expression of TRPM-2 and MMP-7 was observed in both pre- and malignant samples after sex hormone treatment, indicating their role in the early stages of hormone response and PCA development. In contrast, Id-1 was expressed at relatively low levels in all pre- malignant samples, but its level of expression increased in malignant

Studies on knockout mice

But they rarely perform intromissions and ejaculation is almost never seen (Rissman et al., 1997 Wersinger et al., 1997 Ogawa et al., 1998). These mice have blood androgen concentrations above normal (Eddy et al., 1996 Rissman et al., 1997), so their deficient copulatory behavior cannot be a consequence of reduced availability of androgens. The differences in blood androgen concentrations between the knockout and the wild type was, in fact, eliminated in some of the behavioral studies by using castrated males given testosterone replacement. What the data show is that the estrogen a receptor is necessary either for the organization of brain circuits involved in sex behavior or for the activational effects of gonadal hormones in post-pubertal animals or for both the organizational and activational effects of these hormones. They do not provide us with any information that we did not already have from experiments with neonatal or adult castration or neonatal or adult administration of...

Studies on men with spontaneous gene deletions

Some men have an inactivating mutation in the gene coding for aromatase, CYP19. Up to 2005, seven cases have been identified and studied (Jones et al., 2006). This number is very low and any conclusion obtained from the studies of these seven men must be regarded as very uncertain. Nevertheless, sexual behaviors appear to be of normal intensity in all seven, although fertility may be reduced by the congenital lack of estrogens (Simpson, 2004). Plasma hormone concentrations are variable, with some men showing elevated testosterone concentrations (Morishima et al., 1995), while others have concentrations close to the lower end of the normal range (Carani et al., 1997). Obviously, estrogen is not found in the blood of these men. One case study suggests that estrogen treatment enhances sexual functioning above pretreatment levels (Carani et al., 1999), while another study fails to find this effect (Carani et al., 2005). However, the combined treatment with estradiol + testosterone was...

Conclusions concerning the hormonal control of male sexual behavior

Testicular hormones are necessary for sexual behaviors in all mammals, including the human. Castration and other means of reducing testicular hormone concentrations always lead to reduced intensity of sexual behavior. This statement does not imply that reduction of blood androgen concentrations to a very low level eliminates sexual behavior in every individual. We have had a few castrated rats that copulated with exactly the same intensity as intact rats for more than 2 months after castration. At sacrifice, their accessory sexual glands were completely atrophied, as is always the case in castrated animals, showing that blood androgen concentration was as much reduced in these animals as it was in the castrated rats that showed no copulatory behavior at all. The proportion of rats maintaining cop-ulatory behavior for a long time in the absence of testicular hormones is well under 1 , at least in my laboratory. This kind of most unusual individual does not in any way contradict the...

Mendel Begins Plant Experiments

In his research, Mendel used a discovery that had been made not long before Plants have sex. It had long been assumed that plant flowering and reproduction simply happened. The first and most important step toward reversing that view came when an 18th-century scientist, Carolus Linnaeus, devised a new system of plant species classification that made plant sex the basis of species determination. Linnaeus also described hybrids. (When Mendel told his students about plant reproduction, often using plain street terms, some of the students would titter. Don't be stupid These are natural things, Mendel would say.)

The role of ovarian hormones in nonprimate female mammals

The crucial role of follicular hormones for female sexual behavior is not limited to rats and mice. I will not review the huge amount of data that has been accumulated over the years, but it appears to be quite obvious that these hormones are necessary for the display of sexual behavior in most mammals. Possible exceptions include some primates, like the human, as we will see in a couple of paragraphs. However, follicular hormones are not the only ovarian products that are involved in female sexual behavior. Although the follicular hormones, i.e. estradiol, estrone or estriol, can activate complete female rat sexual behavior if administered in doses large enough, the addition of a small dose of progesterone renders a small, otherwise ineffective, dose of estradiol capable of activating all aspects of sex behavior (Beach, 1942b). In rats, estrogens usually need to be administered at least 24 hours before progesterone in order for the latter hormone to be effective. It is now known that...

The role of ovarian and adrenal hormones in female primates

The dramatic cyclic variations in female rat sexual behaviors. This temporal coincidence probably contributed to the now firmly established notion that the hormone dependency of female rodent sexual behavior is far superior to that found in primates. There is, undoubtedly, a substantial amount of support for this notion, but female primate sexual behavior is, as we will see, by no means independent of gonadal hormones. Nevertheless, the fact that female monkeys copulate throughout the menstrual cycle was soon confirmed in a carefully designed study (Ball and Hartman, 1935). Many later studies have described copulatory behavior throughout the primate menstrual cycle (e.g. Michael and Zumpe, 1970 Slob et al., 1978 Dixson, 2001). Some researchers report increases in some aspects of female sexual behaviors in the periovulatory period (e.g. Czaja and Bielert, 1975), while others fail to find any systematic variation during the menstrual cycle (e.g. Nikitopoulos et al., 2005). A...

Expression Studies

In situ hybridization study of the mouse and the rat brains, showed that expression of KISS1 was highest in the arcuate (ARC) and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nuclei, known to send projections to the medial preoptic area, where there is an abundance of GnRH cell bodies.60 Moreover, it was demonstrated that GnRH neurons coexpress gpr54 transcripts.60 Hypo-thalamic kiss1 and gpr54 mRNA expression increases progressively across the pubertal development, reaching maximum levels at the beginning of puberty in rodents and primates.47,51 In male and female rodents, hypothalamic kiss1 mRNA expression increased dramatically after bilateral gonadectomy in adult animals and returned to the anterior levels after sexual steroids replacement as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, suggesting an inhibitory effect for the sex steroids.47 In the AVPV, however, kiss1 expression was decreased after gonadectomy and increased after sex steroid replacement, in a positive...

Hormones and sexual behavior in women

The endocrine control of sexual behavior in the human female has been the subject of a substantial amount of research. Undoubtedly, among the primates there is no species that has attracted as much attention as Homo sapiens. There are several good reasons for this. One is that disorders of the reproductive system are rather common, and one treatment for some of these disorders is ovariectomy. The considerable number of women who have been subjected to ovariectomy, from the early fertile age until well into menopause, has allowed researchers to evaluate the behavioral consequences in a rather large number of individuals. Another reason is that ovarian function ceases at a relatively young age in the human. Many women can expect to live 30 years or more after the ovaries have stopped producing the typical ovarian hormones, estrogens and progesterone. In many respects, the endocrine changes associated with menopause are similar to those occurring after ovariec-tomy. In fact, it has...

Changes in womens sexual behavior at menopause

The preceding brief review of research on variations in sexual behaviors during the menstrual cycle did not offer much support for the hypothesis that ovarian hormones are closely involved in the control of sexual behaviors in women. The consequences of menopause, surgical or natural, for these behaviors do not seem to be more impressive than those of the menstrual cycle. The lack of effect of ovariectomy on sexual behavior in women was described many years ago (Filler and Drezner, 1944 Werner, 1946 Kinsey et al., 1953) and has later been confirmed in a number of studies. Likewise, menopause does not seem to be associated with any particular decline in sexual activity. As always, questionnaire and self-report studies have given conflicting results and conclusions of such studies range from no effect (e.g. Kinsey et al., 1953) to a substantial decline (Dennerstein et al., 2002). Sexual activity is known to diminish with increasing age and this fact may explain the notion held by some...

The role of androgens in women

Since plasma androgen concentrations are not reduced during menopause, we should expect pre- and menopausal women to have the same level of sexual behaviors, provided that other factors that might affect sexual activity are excluded. In view of the lack of effect of menopause on the genital response to sexual incentives, we must conclude that this prediction is confirmed. The marginal importance of phase of the menstrual cycle, ovariectomy and menopause all suggest that androgens rather than estrogens are crucial for sexual behaviors in women. The large inhibitory effects of adrenalectomy combined with ovariectomy, and its reversal by androgen replacement, gives further support to the notion that androgens are important. I conclude by suggesting that women are more similar to other primates than to rodents with regard to the endocrine control of sexual behaviors, nothing else.

HIV infection in women

HIV infection is most commonly due to unprotected sex with an infected partner, but can also occur from receiving contaminated blood, or exposure to non-sterile instruments or medical procedures (Buve et al., 2002). As most infected children under 15 years have contracted the virus by transmission from their mothers, their number reflects the prevalence of the infection in women of childbearing age.

The medial preoptic area motivation or execution

In the male, the medial preoptic area is essential for male sexual behavior. This has been shown in several vertebrate species (Hillarp et al., 1954 Heimer and Larsson, 1966 Slimp et al., 1978 Koyama et al., 1984 Lloyd and Dixson, 1988) and it is most likely that equivalent structures in men are involved (see Paredes, 2003 and Paredes and Baum, 1997 for excellent reviews). Lesion of the medial preoptic area eliminates all sexual behavior irreversibly, provided the lesion includes most of the area. The dramatic deleterious effects are not due to damage to passing axons. Axon-sparing lesions of the medial preoptic area have the same effects as electrolytic or radiofrequency lesions (Hansen et al., 1982). Thus, cell bodies located within the medial preoptic area are necessary. Electrical stimulation of this structure produces intense sexual behavior that lasts as long as stimulation continues (Schmidt, 1968 Merari and Ginton, 1975 Satou, 1984). This effect has consistently been observed...

A note on lordosis in male rats and the influence of the medial preoptic area and of the ventromedial nucleus of the

Male rats do not only display copulatory behaviors typical of their own sex. In addition, they readily display lordosis if given adequate tactile stimulation of the per-ineal region and the flanks, either by a mounting male or by the experimenter's hand. Since male rats do not frequently mount other males and since most males do not like The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus is best known for its role in lordosis behavior in females of many rodent species as we will see in the next section. However, it also plays a role in lordosis behavior in the male rat. Indeed, lesion of the ventromedial nucleus completely eliminates this behavior (Chateau et al., 1987). It would appear, then, that the neural control of male rat lordosis is identical to that of female lordosis. A question that immediately comes to mind regards the possible effects of ventromedial nucleus lesions on male behavior in male rats. If preoptic lesions facilitate female behaviors, then it could be expected that...

Effects of other brain lesions on male sexual behavior

Nucleus of the hypothalamus and the main olfactory bulb, as we have already seen. Some are effective only in animals without sexual experience, some affect one aspect of sexual function but not others, some are significant in one study but not in another, and so on. Results from these kinds of studies show that male sexual behavior is sensitive to events in the brain, but they do not provide any solid fundament for useful hypotheses concerning the central nervous control of sex behavior. If someone should be interested in the huge lesion literature, there is a very extensive review that I can recommend (Hull et al., 2002).

The Sexual Response Cycle

There are four phases in the sexual response cycle I. excitation, II. plateau, III. orgasm, and IV. resolution (Masters, Johnson, &Kolodny, 1994). In men, phase I (excitation) is characterized by erection of the penis. Phase I takes place more slowly in women and is characterized by the production of lubricating fluid in the vagina, an increase in the diameter of the clitoris, and increased congestion of the labia with blood. For both sexes, phase II (plateau) is marked by a rise in the blood congestion of the pelvis and a strong feeling of sexual tension. A sex flush colors the forehead, neck, and chest, sometimes extending to the abdominal area. Phase III (orgasm) occurs in two stages in men a preejaculatory contraction of the muscles involved in ejaculation, and actual ejaculation. The same muscles are involved in the orgasms of women as those of men. During phase IV (resolution), which is usually completed more quickly in men than in women, the congestion of the blood vessels that...

Age Changes in Sexual Behavior

Today, sex appears to be more popular than ever. Both the frequency of sexual intercourse and the variety of techniques used are appreciably greater than they were prior to the 1960s (Rosen & Hall, 1984). In one study, it was found that three-fourths of all 19-year-olds reported having sexual intercourse. Apparently, a sizable number of this group was quite busy in college. An estimated 28 of males and 29 of females in their freshman year of college reported having had premarital intercourse, but these figures had risen to 82 and 86 , respectively, by their senior year (Centers for Disease Control, 1992). Statistics such as these provide support for the description of late adolescence and early adulthood as a time of raging hormones, a characterization that seems truer for males than for females. In males, the sexual urge reaches a peak during the late teens or early twenties, but not until a decade or so later has it reached its peak in females. This observation provides support for...

Indirect estimations of nervous activity in association with sexual behavior

Rather than lesioning or electrically stimulating parts of the brain or implanting gonadal hormones with the purpose of determining the involvement of these parts in the control of sexual behavior, more indirect procedures can be employed. Some years ago it became a kind of fashion to study the expression of the c-fos gene after exposing animals to sexually relevant events, such as the odor or the sight of a conspecific of the opposite sex, or allowing the subjects different amounts of sexual activity, ranging from performing or receiving one mount to several ejaculations. There is, as I mentioned somewhere, abundant evidence showing that the immediate early gene c-fos is activated whenever neural activity is heightened. Enhanced expression of the c-fos gene product is, then, an indicator of neural activity. Results from the large amount of c-fos studies have essentially confirmed what we already knew, perhaps adding some detail here and there. Among the areas activated by sexual...

On the importance of other brain sites inferred from studies of copulationinduced brain activation

A beautiful illustration to the point of view presented in the preceding paragraph can be found in a splendid little paper by Fay Guarraci and colleagues (Guarraci et al., 2004). To appreciate fully their ingenuity some background information is required. Vaginocervical stimulation occurs every time the male performs an intromission. In the female rat, this sensory stimulation has many consequences, as was mentioned in Chapter 3. It is, for example, important for the pacing of sexual interactions. It is also important for the physiological consequences of copulatory behavior, like the induction of pseudopregnancy. This is a state where the corpora lutea do not regress as fast as usual, but remain active for about 14 days. If the copulation had been fertile, the placenta would have started to produce large amounts of estrogens and progesterone long before that time, making the corpora lutea unnecessary for the maintenance of pregnancy. Anyway, vaginocervical stimulation is an important...

Conclusion concerning the neural control of female sexual behavior in nonhuman mammals

Input to these structures and the motor output from them. What I propose is not that the rest of the brain could be eliminated as far as sex behavior is concerned. What I suggest is that the transmission of sensory input to motor output takes place in these structures. If active, then appropriate sensory input excites motor output. If not, nothing happens.

A reciprocal inhibitory relationship between the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and the preoptic area neural

That appear immediately are whether preoptic lesion abolishes mounting in females in the same way as it does in males and whether ventromedial lesion facilitates mounting in females just as it does in males. The answer to these questions is unavailable at present. An abstract presented at the Society for Neuroscience meeting in Orlando, Florida, in 2002 contains the only existing data concerning the effects of lesions of the preoptic area and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus on mounting behavior in female rats. Most unfortunately, the abstract itself only states that, 'The effects of these treatments are currently being evaluated and will be presented' (Afonso et al., 2002). My memory of the poster is somewhat vague after 4 long years, but I recollect that the data shown were most preliminary. However, it appears that a complete report will be submitted for publication before the writing of this book is finished. I can only advise any interested reader to look for it....

Organizational versus activational effects of sex steroid hormones

In general, exposure of males to testicular hormones during prenatal and early postnatal periods leads both to masculinization of some tissues and functions (masculine changes in genital structure, copulatory behavior, and other behaviors characteristic of males) and to defeminization of other tissues and functions (ovulatory competence, feminine sexual behaviors such as lordosis, and other behaviors characteristic of females). Because the various steroid-sensitive tissues of the body and brain have differing critical periods for the organizational effects of testosterone, in some congenital syndromes and under some experimental conditions certain tissues of the body and brain may become masculinized while others do not. Thus, it is often important to consider the degree of masculinization or feminization of specific tissues and functions.

Parenting and Family Environments

Along with absence of the father, family environments prone to discord and lacking in close interpersonal relationships have been of interest, in part, due to their association with girls' early pubertal development, which in turn increases the likelihood of a number of adolescent health outcomes, including problems of mood and conduct, early sexual activity, and teen pregnancy (Ellis, 2004). In twin studies, measures of family conflict and family cohesion show modest to moderate genetic influence, with weighted mean heritabilities in the Kendler and Baker (2007) review of 30 and 24 , respectively (Plomin et al, 1988, 1989 Jacobson and Rowe, 1999 Jang et al, 2001). In one other twin study, Krueger et al (2003) reported on the heritability of a retrospective measure of perceived cohesion versus conflict in the family environment derived from multiple environmental scales. The 16 of variance in this measure that could be attributed to heritable variation, moreover, was fully explained...

Sexual dimorphisms in the brain

The medial preoptic area and sexual behaviors One of the first reports of a sexual dimorphism in a brain structure was by Raisman and Field (1973), who examined the rat medial preoptic area (mPOA a brain area that plays an important role in the regulation of sexual behaviors) by electron microscopy and found that females had more dendritic spine synapses and fewer axosomatic synapses than males. Moreover, they showed that the synapse structure was modulated by the presence of androgen in the neonatal period. Previous reports had shown that the mPOA plays a role in male copulatory behavior in the rat, that implantation of testosterone into the mPOA of castrated males would restore mating behavior, and that similar implants in females would induce male-like mounting and copulatory behaviors (Madeira and Lieberman, 1995). Thus, this was the first report of a structural difference in the brain induced by a gonadal steroid hormone, one that may underlie a known behavioral effect of that...

An ultrashort introduction to the principles of learning

Basic for any understanding of the apparent complexities of sexual behavior is the issue of how learning can modify the stimulus control of that behavior. Of equal importance is the issue of how learning may modify the motor patterns leading to sexual reward. The role of learning for sexual behaviors becomes paramount as soon as we want to understand human sexual behaviors, but it may also have considerable importance for non-human mammals. In this chapter, I try to show that the execution of sexual acts, more precisely acts involving genital stimulation, is involved in both classical conditioning and operant learning. Moreover, sexual responses and the stimuli controlling them may be the subject of non-associate forms of learning, notably habituation. The role of non-associative learning will also be mentioned. In the human, social learning is the main determinant of sexual behaviors, both with regard to the stimulus control of these behaviors and with regard to the motor patterns...

Studies in nonhuman mammals

I defined habituation as a decrease in the intensity of a response because of repeated exposure to a constant stimulus caused by processes in the central nervous system and unrelated to sensory adaptation or effector fatigue. In male rats and other male mammals, prolonged exposure to a sexually receptive female and the associated execution of copulatory behavior leads eventually to an end of sexual activity. It is said that the animal is sexually exhausted. The cause of the disappearance of sexual behavior can obviously be that the male is physically exhausted, in other words fatigue in the effector systems. Another cause may be that his sensory organs have adapted and no longer register the stimuli emitted by the female. If we replace the original female partner with a new one, the male will reinitiate copulation. This phenomenon has been termed the Coolidge effect in honor of the 30th president of the USA, Calvin Coolidge. It is not entirely clear how the term was established, but...

A note on habituation in longterm relationships

Question would be to determine the sexually arousing properties of a stable female partner. Humans and some other mammals have the habit of forming relationships of such a kind that all or at least most sexual activity is performed with one single partner for considerable periods of time. One consequence of this is that the members of the pair are repeatedly exposed to each other, perhaps hundreds or thousands of times if the relationship lasts very long. Repeated exposure to a constant stimulus should lead to habituation, as we know by now. Although women have the habit of changing hair color, perfumes and soaps with an amazing frequency, thereby changing some of their potential sexual incentive characteristics, I have the impression that most men do not notice any of these changes. They rather regard their partner as a reasonably constant stimulus. Most men change hairstyle, after shave and hair color less frequently and can be expected to constitute a constant stimulus for their...

Sensitization of sexual responses

Sensitization, a facilitation of behavior produced by strong or noxious irrelevant stimuli, or by repeated presentations of certain kinds of stimuli, has been described with regard to sexual behavior in rats. Electric shock to the skin or tail pinch have repeatedly been found to facilitate some aspects of male copulatory behavior or to induce copulatory behavior in sexually inactive males (Barfield and Sachs, 1968 Wang and Hull, 1980 Leyton and Stewart, 1996). Again, I know of no data from female rats. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that irrelevant stimuli may enhance the intensity of sexual behavior in male rats. There may well be similar studies in other non-human species, but I have not invested the effort needed for finding them in any search. With regard to the mechanisms behind sensitization, it is generally assumed that the irrelevant stimulus increases general arousal, making the animal more reactive to any stimulus in the environment. Since the salient stimulus in all...

Neoplastic Complications of Hivaids

KS is a malignant vascular neoplasm usually arising in cutaneous tissues and lymph nodes. The incidence is higher in men who have sex with men historically, it was one of the first features of the newly described syndrome in 1981, which was later termed AIDS. KS usually is seen with CD4 counts of less than 50 cells mm3. Lesions are typically red or purple macules coalescing to plaques, papules or nodules, but can be bluish or

Social learning of sexual responses

In case someone does not believe in the fundamental social nature of human sexual behaviors, I will briefly mention some examples of socially learned aspects or rules about sexuality acquired through formal instruction. First, with whom we can have sex. There is an age limit for the display of sexual behaviors in most societies, either imposed by law or by custom. In many human groups there are prohibitions against having sex with our parents and with our children, and frequently also with our siblings, and sometimes even more distant relatives are excluded from the potential choice of partner. Persons of the same sex have only recently been accepted as sexual partners and that only in the most advanced societies. All these arbitrary rules are imposed upon us through formal instruction. Second, where we can have sex. Some people would like to have sex under the table between the entr e and the dessert when dining at a fancy restaurant. If they materialized their wish, they would be...

The positive affect behavioral data

Some people would even say that few things cause a positive affect as intense as that experienced at orgasm. This positive affect produced by the execution of copulatory behaviors is what we understand with sexual reward. The role of affect shall not be underestimated. It is generally believed that positive incentive stimuli activate approach behavior because they induce some fraction of the affect produced by the event they predict. The odor of a receptive female rat, for example, activates approach behaviors in most male rats. Approach to the incentive is normally followed by copulatory acts culminating in ejaculation. Ejaculation is associated with a rather long-lasting positive affect in the male and in the female receiving it, as we soon will see. The female's odor predicts a proximate positive affect. The quality of predictor of positive affect is fundamental for all positive incentives. It seems that the simple exposure to an incentive, without any...

The positive affect neurotransmitters

The only central nervous mechanisms we know something about in relation to sex-induced positive affect is transmitter release. Assuming that the execution of copulatory behaviors culminating in orgasm is an efficient affect-producing procedure, we can start by looking at the neurotransmitters whose release is enhanced around orgasm. This has been done in a couple of studies, but most of them have looked at one single transmitter. Knowing that we already have dozens of transmitters in the brain, and that new ones appear every year, it is unfortunate that attention has been so extremely focused on only one. Still worse, many studies have reported exactly the same data, which seems like a kind of waste. The reason for this uniformity in thought and work is that dominant prejudice at the time these studies were popular had it that the neurotransmitter dopamine was crucial for the experience of positive affect. It was even believed that the positive affect was localized to the nucleus...

General conclusion

There is no doubt that the execution of sexual acts can be reinforcing and rewarding. Likewise, neutral stimuli may become sexual incentives through classical conditioning. We have seen considerable evidence in favor of this notion. Habituation to sexual incentives may be important in non-human mammals, but in humans it seems more reasonable to talk about extinction or negative alliesthe-sia when response intensity is reduced because of repeated exposure to a constant stimulus. Responses to sexual incentives may also be enhanced by sensitization. Most of human, in contrast to non-human, sexual behaviors are acquired by social learning or formal instruction. The main consequence of all this is that human sexual behaviors can be molded by society and individual experience to an extent far superior to that seen in any other mammal. This fact has paramount importance for any analysis of dysfunctional sexual behaviors. I am completely convinced that the enormous moldability of human sexual...

The concept of preference

Preference without a choice is not possible. I cannot prefer anything if I have no alternative. So with sexual preference. Whenever we talk of a preference for sexual partners of one sex or another, we make the underlying assumption that individuals of the opposite sex are also available as partners. This is an important point, because in some situations there is no choice. For example, women locked up in a women's prison usually have no access to male partners. If some of these women were to engage in sex with each other, there would be no reason to maintain that they showed a preference for individuals of their own sex. Likewise, if the soldiers in the Great War had sex with each other in the trenches of Flanders, we cannot say that they manifested any preference for other men. It was simply that no women were available in the trenches.

The concept of homosexual behavior a source of much confusion

Preference for having sex with partners of one's own sex is called homosexuality in contemporary society. It becomes immediately urgent to differentiate this preference from a strange concept frequently used in both the scientific and the lay literature, namely the concept of homosexual behavior. If we look at the behaviors in humans preferring to have sex with their own sex, so to say, we find that many of these behaviors are exactly the same as those displayed in sexual activities with the opposite sex. For example, many men have anal intercourse with their female partners (20-50 of 'heterosexuals' according to surveys such as those conducted by Kinsey et al. (1948, 1953) and by Laumann et al. (1994)), while others have it with their male partners, and some with both. Independently of the partner's sex, the behavior consisting of insertion of the erect penis into the rectum through the anus is always the same. We cannot call this behavior homosexual. It is simply sexual. Some...

The Construct Of Psychopathy

Somewhat inconsistently, Cleckley regarded the DSM-II category of antisocial personality disorder as a fair summary of psychopathy. This category included the attributes of chronically antisocial and hedonistic excluded from his own concept. However, these three concepts may emphasize different, though related, personality constructs. Several of Cleckley's criteria, for example, appear in current descriptions of histrionic personality disorder (superficial charm, egocentric, emotionally shallow, suicide gestures, impersonal sex life). On the other hand, the McCords' focus on persistently antisocial behavior resulting from a craving for excitement reflects a hypothesis common in criminology that criminality results from impulsivity or lack of self-control (Blackburn, 1995). Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990), for example, contend that criminality is a disposition to seek short-term, immediate pleasure without regard for the consequences.

Another confusing concept sexually dimorphic behaviors

A point that must be taken into consideration, even if the only purpose is to reject it, is the fact that popular, and frequently not so popular, beliefs maintain that some sexual behaviors are sexually dimorphic in both the human and other animals. There is, indeed, one sexual behavior that we must accept not only as typical of one sex but also as possible only for one sex. I am referring to a class of behaviors usually called penetrative sex and within that class to the acts of the penetrator. The act of sexual penetration requires an erect penis on the part of the penetrator and only men and other males are properly equipped for displaying that kind of behavior pattern. If we exclude women employing plastic surrogates for penetrating other women or men, we need to conclude that the penetrator, or inserter as some like it, is always a male. However, the human male can easily penetrate other males, so being the penetrated, or the insertee as some like it, is not a In non-human...

Preferences for sexual motor patterns

Having got rid of the useless term 'homosexual behavior' and limited the term 'sexual dimorphism' to the rather insignificant cases where a real dimorphism exists, we can now start to concentrate on the subject of this chapter, sexual preferences. The expression could, in principle, refer both to the sex of the partner we choose for our sexual activities and to the specific choice of motor pattern. We will begin this section with a brief discussion of the latter choice. Someone may choose penile-vaginal intercourse with the woman in supine position whenever a choice is available, while someone else may choose fellatio as soon as the partner accepts it. The choice of a specific motor pattern for the execution of sexual acts should, in principle depend on the individual's history of reinforcement and reward. The pattern most likely leading to the obtention of sexual reinforcement and or to the most intense sexual reward should be selected, according to behavior theory. However, other...

Comparisons Of Longterm Effects Of Diagnosis And Treatment By Cancer Site Breast Cancer And Hodgkins Disease

We found no significant changes in marital partner status or in employment status in the breast cancer group. With regard to the SF-36 subscales, social function improved over time. We did not find differences in sexual activity or reporting of sexual problems even though by now most women were menopausal (75 due to treatment) and there were fewer children at home. There were significant decreases in the size of one's social network and emotional support. In multivariate analyses, less reduction in emotional support predicted better QOL. No changes in employment status or sexual activity

Studies in male nonprimate mammals

Turning to males, the situation is somewhat clearer. This is probably because we have more data on males than on females, as is so often the case. If a male rat is castrated shortly after birth, on postnatal day 0 to be exact, and treated with estra-diol + progesterone when adult, he will not only display lordosis, ear wiggling and hop-darting with the same frequency as a female, bur he will also approach a sexually active male more than a receptive female. When these males received a testosterone implant in adulthood, they changed their behavior and approached a sexually receptive female more than a male (Matuszczyk et al., 1988). This fascinating result suggests that male rats are similar to females in the way that adult hormonal environment determines the preferred sex, while early hormone exposure or lack of such is of minor importance. Similar results were obtained in a study by Meyerson et al. (1979). Their males, castrated shortly after birth, also approached a male more than a...

Endocrine events during puberty and their possible importance for sexual preferences

Sexual differentiation has for a long time been considered as an event taking place before, around or shortly after birth. During the last few years, it has become apparent that this notion is overly simplified. Something must happen in the brain sometime between the late postnatal period and the end of puberty. For example, sexual behavior cannot be activated to adult levels in prebubertal male hamsters, rats or ferrets even when treated with large doses of androgens. Similarly, absence of gonadal hormones during puberty leads to a reduced responsiveness to these hormones when adult. Male hamsters deprived of androgens during puberty mount, intromit and ejaculate less in a test for copulatory behavior than hamsters exposed to physiological concentrations of these hormones. Not only do pubertal androgens enhance male-typical sexual behaviors in response to androgen treatment in adulthood, but they also reduce the expression of female-typical behaviors. Again, male hamsters not exposed...

A core concern for privacy personal information or beyond

Information concerning how an individual voted at the last general election, how frequently she has sexual intercourse, her divergent sexual habits, her mental health, suicide attempts, misuse of drugs or alcohol and genetic predispositions to illness or congenital handicaps are classified as 'highly sensitive'. In comparison, information relating to an individual's previous address, the fact that she is adopted, her NHS number, her absences from work or her credit rating are examples of information of'moderate sensitivity'. Finally, information of 'low sensitivity' includes sporting activities, membership of clubs, employer details, home address and the fact that an individual wears glasses. Wacks identifies six factors which assist in the categorisation of personal information.128 These are

The Oxytocinergic System

Oxytocin affects species-specific social and reproductive behaviors (for an overview, see Heinrichs and Domes, 2008, Heinrichs et al, 2009). Warm social contact with the partner, sexual arousal, orgasm, and attachment as well as regulation of parturition and lactation have been related to oxytocin actions in women. Oxytocin interacts with the HPA axis and has stress-reducing effects in both men and women During laboratory stress, oxytocin was found to diminish cortisol responses, which is most likely due to a central inhibition of the HPA axis, involving reduced amygdala reactivity.

The homosexual scalp and hand

Some other still more unbelievable studies on differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals have been published, but I will give them the benefit of ignorance. Instead, I will return to the first couple of studies I mentioned and to their failure to find a reliable difference between homosexual and heterosexual men. There are many potential causes for this failure. These same causes would most likely apply to studies on homosexual women, if they would be undertaken some day or another. During the next few sections of this chapter, I will discuss some of the potential causes. In addition to that, I will approach the mystery of why there is a search for a 'biological' cause at all. I already mentioned the lack of a convincing rationale a couple of pages ago. This lack becomes still more evident if the most limited relevance of homosexuality as a problem of public health is considered. Besides preferences for having sex with a certain kind of people, humans have preferences for...

Preference versus orientation the role of will and other issues

The concept of homosexuality is highly value-loaded. An immediate consequence of this is that almost any opinion expressed on the subject is prone to be criticized, perhaps even violently, by some group or another. This is perhaps not of major importance for a courageous scientist, so long as funding is not jeopardized. From a scientific point of view, a more serious problem is that the concept is vague and understood in different ways by different individuals. I have tried to avoid using the words homosexuality or homosexual and replaced them with sexual preference when discussing studies of non-human animals. However, as soon as we turn to the human, even the concept of preference may be victim of violent attack. Some want the expression 'sexual preference' to be replaced by the expression 'sexual orientation'. This seemingly trivial proposal is related to how we conceive the causes for having sex with same-sex individuals and this is a highly contentious issue. For reasons which I...

Uncertainties associated with classification and the notion of stability

In popular and quasiscientific analyses of homosexuality, it is frequently argued that the category of homosexual acquires meaning only when used in opposition to the category of heterosexual. I am not familiar with all the arguments for and against this opinion, but I am not convinced that it enlightens us much. Likewise, many social scientists and very few neuroscientists are of the opinion that the concept of homosexuality is a social construction. It is, according to this point of view, a socially created category with obscure correspondence in nature. I am not sure that this belief is helpful either. In fact, all concepts are products of reason and created by humans living in society. Nevertheless, it may be of some help briefly to examine the basic concepts employed both in the research on same-sex behaviors and in the non-scientific discussions of them. At the beginning of this chapter, I have already mentioned that the concept of homosexuality as well as the category of...

The One Gene One Enzyme Hypothesis

Following the Second World War, the face of genetics was transformed as biochemists and geneticists teamed up to explore what genes do in the cell, and what they are. What was new was not the concept that genes function by way of enzymes, but the use of microorganisms. Single-celled microbes allowed geneticists to avoid the complexity of tissue differentiation and cellular integration when searching for a bridge between gene and character. The geneticist isolated mutants that were found to be unable to grow, or that grew poorly on a well-defined growth medium, and the biochemist sought the reason for this inability. Thus, a suitable organism for biochemical genetics was one whose sex life and growth could be brought under meticulous control. The model organisms of classical genetics, Drosophila, corn, and mice, so useful for establishing the chromosome theory of inheritance, were quickly outcompeted by rapidly reproducing microorganisms fungi, yeast, algae, protists, and bacteria.

Homosexual behaviors a lesson from history and some observational data pertinent to the issues of classification and

Support for the arbitrariness inherent in the notion of homosexuality comes from history (see e.g. Bullough, 1979 Spencer, 1995). It seems that the concept of homosexuality was created as late as the 19th century, while descriptions of copu-latory behaviors with individuals of the same sex were already common in the distant past. We have no written records of homosexual activities from ages earlier than Greek and Roman antiquity, but considering that some monkeys show what we now call homosexual behaviors, we can assume that humans, too, have engaged in such behaviors for as long as there has been a human species. Despite the existence of the behavior, there was no need to create a particular label for the individuals engaging in it until quite recently. There are, just to take one example, many descriptions of same-sex activities in ancient Greece and Rome, but the concept of homosexuality does not appear in any of them. Literary sources tell us about the close association between...

Sexual preferences can be explained by incentive motivation theory without any reference to the concept of homosexuality

In Chapter 8, I dismissed the concept of homosexual behaviors as basically useless. Now I am going a step further and dismissing the category of homosexual as largely useless for scientific purposes. It may well be of importance in doctrines of faith or in discussions of morality, but I cannot really see how it can help us to understand human sexual behavior. Likewise, the category of heterosexual can be dismissed from scientific use on the same grounds. I am well aware of the fact that it is always easy to criticize an idea and dismiss it as being of little use. It is frequently more difficult to propose a better alternative. However, in this particular case, I will propose an alternative that may prove to be far more fruitful than the categories of homosexual and heterosexual have been. I suggest replacing both these categories not with other categories but with an entirely different concept taken directly from behavior theory. It is probably not difficult to guess that I will...

Empirical support for an explanation of samesex preferences in incentive motivational terms

Individuals of the sex opposite to the experimental subject, or heterosexual activities. Furthermore, these studies included only subjects that declared themselves to be heterosexual. Please excuse me for continuing to use a term that I dismissed myself, but I am using the terminology employed by the authors of the studies I have mentioned and that I will mention. Rather than using incentive stimuli of the sex opposite to the subjects, some scientists have varied the incentives and included depictions of same-sex activities (two individuals of the same sex engaged in copulatory behaviors and of the same sex as the experimental subject (samesame-sex) or of the sex opposite to the experimental subject (opposite same-sex) in addition to heterosexual activities. Furthermore, some studies included not only heterosexuals but also male and female homosexuals, vulgarly called gays and lesbians, as experimental subjects. I will describe one of the early studies (Wincze and Qualls, 1984) in...

Nondietary Prostate Cancer Risk Factors

Of an androgenic profile associated with prostate cancer development.27 Smokers have higher circulating testosterone levels than nonsmokers.28 While there is no direct link between androgen levels and sexually transmitted diseases, androgen levels may be modestly correlated with indices of sexual activity.29 Among the various parameters of sexual activity indices and prostate cancer risk that have been evaluated (e.g., age at first intercourse, frequency of intercourse, marital status), the only one that has been consistently linked to prostate cancer risk is a history of a sexually transmitted disease.31 While this has suggested to some a possible infectious etiology, the epidemiology does not strongly support this premise. For example, Ross and colleagues32 showed that celibate priests do not have a low risk of prostate cancer and unlike cervical cancer (known to be caused by a sexually transmitted infectious agent), prostate cancer is not inversely related to socioeconomic status,...

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