Significance to humans

Most ctenophores have very little effect on humans, but the introduction of Mnemiopsis leidyi into the Black Sea during the 1970s (presumably from ballast water discharge) has been implicated in the collapse of fisheries in that area. Since then, Beroe ovata has also been introduced into the area and appears to be controlling Mnemiopsis leidyi populations.

1. Venus's girdle (Cestum veneris)-, 2. Bloody belly (Lampocteis cruentiventer); 3. Sea gooseberry (Pleurobrachia bachei); 4. Beroe forskalii; 5. Sea walnut (Mnemiopsis leidyi); 6. Vallicula multiformis; 7. Thalassocalyce inconstans. (Illustration by Joseph E. Trumpey)

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