References

Bourlioux P, Koletzko B, Guarner F, Braesco V. The intestine and its microflora are partners for the protection of the host report on the Danone Symposium The Intelligent Intestine, held in Paris, June 14, 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 2003 78 675-683. 2. Topping DL, Clifton PM. Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Physiol Rev 2001 81 1031-1064. 3. Blum S, Schiffrin EJ. Intestinal Microflora and Homeostasis of the Mucosal Immune...

Studies by Traditional Plate Culture Methods

The first reports associating allergy with characteristic microbial composition in the gut appear to be from studies in the former Soviet Union in the early1980s (38-40). One of these studies, reported also in English, involved an assessment of 60 under one-year-old infants with food allergy and atopic eczema. It was claimed that the severity of the disease was in direct correlation with the stage of aberrancy in the fecal microbiota. This aberrancy was characterized as low prevalence of...

Relationships Between The Intestinal Immune System And Intestinal Microbiota

The intestinal microbiota has marked influences on the intestinal and peripheral host's immunity. In some cases, the effects are produced by the whole intestinal microbiota, whereas in other cases only one predominant bacterium is capable of producing a certain immunostimulatory effect that is as effective as that of the whole microbiota. Moreover, the post-natal period seems to play a crucial role in the cross talk between the intestinal microbiota and the development of some important...

Anatomy

A4b7 Integrin

The immune system associated with the small intestine is currently described according to two compartments (i) the inducing sites, named the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), consisting of organized aggregated lymphoid tissue, scattered small nodules, Peyer's patches (PPs), and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and (ii) the effector sites, i.e., the lamina propria tissue where numerous mature B and T small lymphocytes (60 CD4 + T cells), plasma cells of which about 90 synthesize IgA are...

Helicobacter pylori

H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium found in the human stomach and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers (6). Additionally, both epidemiological and clinical evidence has indicated that H. pylori is associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma (7,8) and as such it is the first bacterium to be termed a definitive cause of cancer by the International Agency for Research into Cancer (IARC). The cag pathogenicity island appears to play an...

Gut Bacterial Metabolism and CRC Risk

The enormous numbers and diversity of the human gut microbiota is reflected in a large and varied metabolic capacity, particularly in relation to xenobiotic biotransformation, carcinogen synthesis and activation. The metabolic activities of the gut microbiota can have wide-ranging implications for the health of the host (42). To date the vast majority of mechanisms whereby bacteria are involved in carcinogenesis involve toxic or protective products of bacterial metabolism. Such metabolic...

Perorally Administered Cephalosporins

Studies on the effects of perorally administered cephalosporins are summarized in Table 3. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota during administration of cefaclor have been studied in patients (19) and in healthy volunteers (51,52). In the microbiota of patients there were reduced numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive cocci. Enterococci, enterobacteria and Bacteroides species increased and there were also increased numbers of Candida albicans. In healthy subjects only minor...