Solid Waste Ebook
Traditionally, the colon has been considered to largely be the human sewage system which, as well as storing and removing waste material from the GI tract, was capable of recycling water (i.e., absorption). However, we now recognize that the GI tract is one of the most metabolically and immunologically active organs of the human body. Indeed, the primary function of the microbiota is generally considered to be salvage of energy via fermentation of carbohydrates, such as indigestible dietary residues (plant cell walls, non-digestible fibers and oligosaccharides), mucin side-chains and sloughed-off epithelial cells (5,6,8,13,17). It has been estimated that between 20 and 60 grams of carbohydrate are available in the colon of healthy human adults per day, as well as 5-20 grams of protein. In addition to salvaging energy, principally through production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and their subsequent absorption and use by the host, microbial fermentation produces gases (principally...
Outside of the dead branches and trunks of desert plants. Other termites build their nests away from any food source. Their nests are constructed entirely underground, beneath rocks, partially above ground, or completely on the surface. Underground nests are usually made up of chambers or layers of tunnels, called galleries. The walls of the chambers and galleries are plastered with the hardened waste material of termites.
We give the description of a typical SSF process that aims to recycle solid waste into ethanol, which functions as an alternative fuel. The solid utilized in this process is approximately two-thirds urban waste and one-third pulp mill waste. This solid mixture contains approximately 57 in cellulose. The waste is pretreated, sterilized, and then forwarded to three reactors of 2500 gal each. A culture of mutant fungus T. reesei is inoculated into each reactor. The fungus continuously produces a full complement of cellulases that degrade cellulose. The total residence time for each cellulase production strain is 48 h. Ninety percent of the cellulose introduced into the reactors is degraded into sugars, such as pentose, xylose, arabinose, and glucose. Subsequently, the degraded cellulose is cooled in a heat exchanger and sent into 12 reactors for fermentation into ethanol. In this system, one can shut down four reactors while continuing operating the remaining reactors in full swing. The...
Most degradation studies employing Phanerochaete have been carried out in solid cultures or in shallow liquid stationary or shake cultures (Ander and Eriksson 1977 Hatakka 1985). Packed-bed bioreactor configurations have been mainly used to study the ligninolytic enzymes and degradative abilities of P. chrysosporium (Lewandowski et al. 1990 Linko 1988). In view of this it was decided to examine the effect of the fungus on the industrial waste in a 2 l packed-bed reactor.
Number increased with age (Figure 20.4C). Most of these resembled lipid droplets (or possibly secondary lysosomes) within which have accumulated electron-opaque particles with a sooty appearance. By contrast, there were very few such inclusions in the intestines of parasitic females and their number did not change with age. These observations suggest that degeneration of the intestine, possibly associated with accumulation of fluorescent electron opaque waste material, represents a pathology of aging that contributes to nematode pathology. This idea was previously put forward based on TEM studies of aging in Caenorhabditis briggsae (Epstein et al., 1972). The fact that this pathology was not detected in the intestine of the parasitic S. ratti adult is consistent with the idea that the absence of this pathology contributes to parasitic longevity.
(a) Tempe (Tempeh) Kedele This is a fermented soybean-based food, popular with American vegetarians and also available in Canada, the West Indies, Holland, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It is supplied in the form of a white, moldy cake. The beans are cleaned, soaked, dehulled, partially cooked, drained, inoculated, packed in banana leaves or perforated plastic bags, and incubated for 2 days to produce tempe. A variety of fungi have been isolated from Malaysian tempe including various species of Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium, and Rhizopus by Yeoh and Merican (1977). In tempe of other origins bacteria such as Bacillus and Micrococcus sp. may also be present (b) Tempelike foods from broad beans and cowpeas Rhizopus arrhizus is used in the production of tempe products from broad beans. R. oligosporus, R. oryzae, and R. arrhizus are used for tempe products from cowpeas. Different Rhizopus species give products with different aromas and flavors (Djurtoft and Jensen 1977) (c) Oncom (Ontjon) A...
Behavior and reproduction Both males and females are required for mating. Males only mate with females that are close to their own size. The bodies of females may contain up to five hundred thousand eggs at a time and can produce several million eggs in their lifetime. Fertilized eggs are sneezed out or swallowed and passed from the body with solid waste. Intermediate hosts, such as rodents, cattle, sheep, and goats, accidentally swallow the eggs with their food. The eggs hatch into four-legged larvae that travel through blood vessels into the lungs and the digestive organs. The larvae must molt six to eight times before they become infective cysts. Definitive hosts, dogs and their relatives, eat the infested flesh. When swallowed, the larvae go directly into the air passages and sinuses associated with the nose inside the head. There they develop into adults.
The economic threshold for commercial selection of a biological process to replace a physico-chemical process for heavy metal removal from a waste stream as assessed by Macaskie (1991) is that a metal-loading capacity greater than 15 of the biomass dry wt must be demonstrated. Before the selection of any technology, it is imperative to note the hierarchy of hazardous waste management options reduce reuse recycle. The option of last resort is to treat and dispose of the waste in safe landfills, while minimizing the resultant volume, since disposal sites are few and space is precious not to mention expensive. A given bioremediation technology should be able to perform on a large scale in order for it to be commercially viable. The organism or biomaterial selected to accomplish the goal of removing or altering a heavy metal or metal ion rendering it less toxic must be very efficient in performing its intended function. The literature is rich with reports of studies attesting to the...
Plates that join together in the shape of a round or flat cone. The plates are either distinct or tightly joined (fused) together. Inside the mantle is a multi-purpose space, or chamber, where the mouth and reproductive organs are located. It is also where solid waste is released from the barnacle's body. The eggs are kept in this chamber, and the larvae develop there until they are released into the open sea. Adults have a six-segmented thorax with six pairs of cirri (SIH-ree). Cirri are long, bristly, tentaclelike limbs and are either branched or not. They are used together for breathing and like a net to catch bits of food floating in the water. In acorn barnacles, the shell is attached directly to a solid object, but those of gooseneck barnacles are located on top of a soft, flexible stalk. Barnacles without stalks measure up to 9 inches (230 millimeters) in length and 3.1 inches (80 millimeters) across. Stalked species measure up to 27.5 inches (700 millimeters) in length.
Common indicatorsinclude energy and water inputsto production, and global warming, ozone-depleting and solid waste emissions from production. Both GRI and WBCSD also make a distinction between 'core' or 'generally applicable' indicators, and 'supplemental' or 'organization-specific' indicators. This notion of generic and specific indicators is not used in the more externally-oriented WRI, NRTEE and Ellipson schemas. In general, all of these lists are considerably shorter than those proposed when standardization in performance measurement was first discussed, with a range of four to seven generic indicators being proposed.
The large intestine, or colon, extends from the ileocecal valve to the anus, framing the small intestine on three sides. Chyme from the ileum passes into the cecum, which is a blind pouch (open only at one end) at the beginning of the large intestine. Waste material then passes in sequence through the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anal canal (fig. 18.17). Waste material (feces) is excreted through the anus, the external opening of the anal canal.
After electrolytes and water have been absorbed, the waste material that is left passes to the rectum, leading to an increase in rectal pressure, relaxation of the internal anal sphincter, and the urge to defecate. If the urge to defecate is denied, feces are prevented from entering the anal canal by the external anal sphincter. In this case the feces remain in the rectum, and may even back up into the sigmoid colon. The defecation reflex normally occurs when the rectal pressure rises to a particular level that is determined, to a large degree, by habit. At this point, the external anal sphincter relaxes to admit feces into the anal canal.
Most psocids reproduce by mating, with males transferring sperm or sperm packets directly into the reproductive organs of the female. However, reproduction by parthenogenesis (PAR-thuh-no-JEH-nuh-sihs), the development of young from unfertilized eggs, is widespread. Parthenogenetic species produce only females. Eggs are laid singly or in groups. They are placed in the open, covered with silk webbing or with psocid waste material. A few species are viviparous (VAI-vih-pe-rus), or give live birth. The larvae hatch from eggs using a specialized egg-burster. The egg-burster is a bladelike or sawlike structure on the head that cuts through the eggshell as the young larva rocks back and forth inside. The larvae closely resemble the adults but lack wings and are unable to reproduce. They usually molt, or shed their exoskeletons or hard outer coverings, four or five times in four to six weeks before reaching adulthood. Some species molt only three or four times.
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