Alternative Treatments For Spondylitis
The significant correlation between high proportions of CD8+CD28 T cells and poor antibody response to influenza vaccination documented in two independent clinical studies (Goronzy et al., 2001 Saurwein-Teissl et al., 2002) provides an example of putative suppressive effects of senescent CD8+ T cells on the function of other immune cells. Senescent CD8+ T cells have also been associated with suppressive effects in organ transplant patients. Donor-specific CD8+CD28 T cells are detectable in the peripheral blood of those patients with stable function of heart, liver and kidney transplants, whereas no such cells were found in patients undergoing acute rejection (Cortesini et al., 2001). Although in the context of organ transplantation, suppression may lead to a favorable outcome, in many other contexts, the CD8+CD28 T cell populations are associated with deleterious effects. For example, expanded populations of CD8+CD28 T cells are present in ankylosing spondylitis patients, and, in...
Tiwari and Terasaki's book published in 1985 (Tiwari and Terasaki, 1985), listed hundreds of HLA-associated diseases, even though the first demonstration of a strong association, that of HLA-B27 and ankylosing spondylitis (AS), came only a decade earlier. Meanwhile, many more associations have been added to the list but, apart from Narcolepsy, which shows an almost absolute association with DQB1*0602, none have been as strong as the association of HLA-B27 with AS (Lechler and Warrens, 2000). There are conflicting reports for many of the weaker associations, which include everything from aging and dyslexia to autism and sleepwalking (Lecendreux et al., 2003). In some of these studies insufficient numbers of cases and controls were examined to obtain
More than 30 of skeletal TB cases involve the spine (tuberculous spondylitis or Pott's disease). The most commonly affected area is the lower thoracic spine, followed by the lumbar, cervical, and sacral areas. The mode of spread to the spine is usually hematogenous, but it also can result from contiguous disease or lymphatic spread from TB pleuritis. In contrast to common bacterial causes of spinal osteomyelitis that initially present as discitis with adjacent vertebral body involvement, TB spondylitis typically begins within the anterior vertebral body. With time, spread to the adjacent disc and vertebra occurs, and vertebral body wedging develops. A 12-month course of treatment is recommended for Pott's spondylitis. In a review of uncomplicated cases, response rates to systemic chemotherapy and bed rest until pain
Many pioneers of radiation research, including Madame Curie, died from cancer. In the 1930s a high incidence of osteosarcomas was reported in luminous watch-dial painters who ingested radium from licking brushes. During the following decade a high incidence of leukaemia and skin cancer was observed amongst radiologists. A variety of cancers follow radiotherapy for benign conditions, most notably those of breast, thyroid and liver and following irradiation for ankylosing spondylitis.