Termite Control, How To Kill Termites eBook
You Might Start Missing Your Termites After Kickin'em Out. After All, They Have Been Your Roommates For Quite A While. Enraged With How The Termites Have Eaten Up Your Antique Furniture? Can't Wait To Have Them Exterminated Completely From The Face Of The Earth? Fret Not. We Will Tell You How To Get Rid Of Them From Your House At Least. If Not From The Face The Earth.
Most people think of termites as pests, and with good reason. Their feeding and nesting activities damage or destroy wood and wood products used in books, furniture, buildings, telephone poles, and fence posts, causing millions of dollars of damage every year. Millions of dollars more are spent trying to control their populations or get rid of them. Termite control methods include applying heat to infested areas, freezing them with liquid nitrogen, and zapping them with microwaves or electrical shocks. Each method is used for a particular kind of infestation. Lumber yards now treat much of the wood used in the construction of buildings with chemicals designed to repel termite attacks. Because of their ability to convert plant materials into animal protein, termites could be used to turn large amounts of raw plant waste into food for humans. The feeding activities of termites could be applied to breaking down sawdust and scrap lumber piling up in sawmills or eliminating straws, bean...
Macroherbivory feeders obtain food by consuming macroscopic plants. One of the best protostome examples of plant feeders is the order Orthoptera (crickets, locust, and grasshoppers). Members of this order have developed specialized mouthparts and muscle structures to bite and chew. The African Copiphorinae, for example, uses its large jaws to open seeds. Biting and chewing mouthparts are also seen in beetles and many orders of insects. Two other types of mouth-parts common to macroherbivory feeders are sucking and piercing. Sucking mouthparts enable insects such as butterflies and honey bees to gather nectar, pollen, and other liquids. Protostomes such as cicadas feed by drawing blood or plant juices. The leaf cutter ants (Atta cephalotes) are interesting example of macroherbivory feeders. These ants cut leaves and flowers and transport them to their nests where they are used to grow a fungus that is their main food source. A related feeding behavior is also found in termites...
A well-known active defense system is found in social insects such as honey bees, termites, and ants. The latter two organisms actually maintain a caste of soldiers for colony defense, as do several species of aphids (Colophina clematis, C. monstrifica, C. arma). When threatened, these organisms attack by injecting venom into the aggressor and can use their powerful mandibles to incapacitate. In aquatic organisms such as those found in the order Decapoda, cuttlefish and squid defend themselves not only by an ability to escape, but also by discharging ink that temporarily disorientates the aggressor. Some decapods in the order Octopoda, which includes the octopus, have a similar ink defense system. At least one case has been observed in which Octopus vulgaris was recorded actually holding stones in its tentacles as a defensive shield against a moray eel. In general, organisms during early ontogenetic development approach low-intensity stimulation and withdraw from high-intensity...
Most primates forage primarily in trees or bushes for insects, fruits, leaves and or gums. Regardless of the diet, the visual sense plays a major part in searching for food. Nocturnal primates generally have only a very restricted capacity for distinguishing colors and must rely on other dietary cues, but diurnal primates usually have some form of color vision. Fully developed trichromatic color vision of the kind found in humans occurs in Old World monkeys and apes and a few New World monkeys. Most New World monkeys and all diurnal lemurs have fundamentally dichromatic vision, although in certain New World monkeys there is an unusual polymorphism of the gene coding for a retinal pigment on the X-chromosome, such that some females have a form of trichromatic vision. Prosimian primates generally collect their food primarily with the mouth, but in higher primates the hands play an increased role. As a rule, food items are consumed directly, but in some cases there is some pretreatment...
Grasshoppers, termites, beetles, caterpillars, and crustaceans are important sources of food for humans and are even considered delicacies in many parts of the world. They are an excellent source of fat and protein. Western European culture has largely ignored insects as food but considers lobster, crab, and shrimp as delicacies.
The recognition of symbiotic relationships has had a revolutionary impact on modern biological thought. The idea that mitochondria and chloroplasts are transformed by symbiotic bacteria provides a common thread to the biological world and raises hope of finding other symbiotic wonders among life's diversity. Plants and animals have acquired new metabolic capabilities through symbioses with bacteria and fungi. Mammalian herbivores and termites digest cellulose with the help of microbial symbionts. The luminescent bacteria contained in the specialized light organs of some fishes and squids produce marine bioluminescence. Diverse animal life around deep-sea vents is based on symbiosis with bacteria that oxidize hydrogen sulfide and chemosynthetically fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrates. Associations between fungi and algae have resulted in unique morphological structures called lichens. Early land plants formed associations with mycorrhizal fungi, which greatly facilitated their...
Insects are humanity's greatest competitors and cause huge economic losses when they feed on timber, stored foods, pastures, and crops. Termites and other insects infest and weaken wood used to build homes, businesses, floors, cabinets, and furniture. The larvae of clothes moths and carpet beetles destroy woolen clothing, rugs, and hides. Mites, moths, beetles, and other insects invade homes and infest stored foods and destroy books and other paper products. Crops lost to insect damage cause enormous economic hardship and may lead to starvation and death among hundreds or thousands of people. One-third to one-half of all food grown worldwide is lost to damage caused
Approach that takes advantage of the biological nature of entomopathogenic fungi is the lure and infect approach, best demonstrated by research on Z. radicans for control of diamondback moth. Furlong et al. (1995) have shown that using pheromone lures to attract moths to traps containing sporulating Z. radicans can result in contamination and spread of the fungus through the target population. Such an approach has been investigated for use with scarab beetles in the Azores (Klein and Lacey 1999). Autodissemination of entomopathogenic fungi for control of Popillia japonica in the Azores used a trapping system of commercially available attractants with M. anisopliae. The viability of conidia in traps after 6 days was found to be about 35 , but the basic process was successful for introducing fungi into pest populations. Another approach has been bait stations, such as those used with termites (Rath 2000). The entomopathogenic fungus is placed in a trap together with a food-based bait,...
During courtship displays, where they bow to each other, clatter their bills, and squeal or whine. The male and female both help to build the nest out of water plants. They start by building a floating platform that is up to 10 feet (3 meters) across. On top of this platform, they build a nest that is about 4.5 feet (1.4 meters) across. In some places, nests are built on termite mounds that stick out of the water. The birds work the plant stems into the nest by jumping up and down on them and poking them in with their long toes.
Most piciform birds are cavity-nesters even the hon-eyguides, all of which are nest parasites, lay their eggs in the nests of other hole-nesting species such as barbets and woodpeckers. The type of cavity used varies among families. Some species of jacamars and puffbirds dig out nest sites in rotten trees where termites have nested. Other species in these two families excavate their nesting burrows in soil, often along riverbanks. Barbets and woodpeckers use their strong, sharp beaks to hammer out nest cavities in rotting trees, and the largest toucan species occupy natural tree cavities. The smaller toucan species often drive woodpeckers away from just-excavated holes, then use their powerful beaks to enlarge the nest opening.
The origins of pangolins are largely unknown. Many of their current features (such as lack of adult teeth along with signs of primordial teeth in the embryo, chewing musculature and stomach, lack of zygomatic arch, elongated facial skeleton, worm-like tongue, forelimbs as digging tools, and prehensile tail) imply a long independent history. There is a general acceptance that they had an early separation from primitive mammals. By the Eocene era pangolins were highly specialized with such adaptations as horny scales, no teeth, and a diet of only ants and termites. The common name pangolin (possibly from Malayan or French words) refers to the animal's ability to curl up into a ball.
Wards with their feet as they burrow. These tunnels also can be found some distance from the water, on soil banks or roots of fallen trees. The nest sits at the end of the tunnel in a horizontal, oval-shaped terminal chamber. Some jacamars, including the rufous-tailed jacamar, may use termite nests for breeding if no appropriate site to dig a ground tunnel can be found. Tunnels are 12-36 in (30-91 cm) long and about 2 in (5 cm) in diameter. The nest chamber is used repeatedly and does not contain nest material, although eggs often are covered with a layer of regurgitated insect parts. In some species, male and female participate in building the nest hole in other species only the female does this work.
As mentioned above, a particular situation is given in eusocial insects as wasps, bees, ants and termites. They live in colonies with cooperating members of different castes, sharing a high level of genetic similarity with the queen. Aging process and life span of the colony members are widely determined by extrinsic factors such as nutrition and kind of work. The remarkable longevity of the queen ranging from 4 to 8 years in wasps and up to 30 years in termites is of great interest (Page and Peng, 2001). This topic is further dealt with in Chapter 23, Models of Aging in Honeybee Workers,'' and Chapter 24, Ants as Naturally Long-Lived Insect Models for Aging.'' For a more detailed description of aging and environmental conditions in insects see Collatz (2003).
All members of this group have elongated snouts and a thin tongue that is capable of extending outward to a length greater than the length of the head. They have a tubular mouth with lips but they do not have teeth. They also have large curved foreclaws that are used to tear open ant and termite mounds. The powerful foreclaws can also be used as lethal weapons for defense. All but one species has a grasping prehensile tail. The fur is long and thick to protect them briefly from the attack of ants as well as termites.
Accurate census numbers on these animals have been difficult to obtain. They are solitary, have a low reproductive rate, are difficult to find, and seem to have large home ranges these factors make population studies very challenging. As a result, their natural history is poorly understood and their conservation status is difficult to assess. They are found in a wide range of habitats. However, much of their range is suffering from the pressures of habitat alteration, destruction and human encroachment. It has yet to be determined how well they can adjust and survive in disturbed habitat. Their survival is also linked to the availability and health of ant and termite populations. This group is in desperate need of detailed study.
Geographic range These termites are native to the forests of the eastern United States, from Maine south to Florida and west to Minnesota and Texas they were introduced into Canada in southern Ontario and Quebec. Eastern subterranean termites eat the wood of many kinds of trees, preferring the outer portion of the trunk. ( James H. Robinson Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Diet Eastern subterranean termites eat the wood of many kinds of trees, preferring the outer portion of the trunk. Small, paper-thin layers of a dried paste made from their droppings divide their galleries. When working above ground in buildings and trees, they build protected tubes or shelters made from small bits of soil and saliva, lined inside with a paste made from their droppings. These termites do not build a nest structure. Instead, large, mature colonies consist of loosely connected galleries occupied by an extended family, with several kings and queens producing broods that contribute to...
Physical characteristics This is the largest termite in Southeast Asia. Winged kings and queens are about 1.2 inches (30.5 millimeters) from head to wingtips, with a wingspan of at least 2 inches (50.8 millimeters). The bodies of both workers and soldiers are very dark, nearly black. Male workers are larger than female workers. The soldiers are all females, large or small, and have very sharp, swordlike jaws. Diet These termites collect mostly dead grass, twigs, and other plant debris (duh-BREE). These plant materials are hauled below ground into the nest. Small workers chew up the material, eat it, and then deposit their droppings as fertilizer on masses of spongelike fungus. The spores, or reproductive bodies that sprout on the outer surface of the fungus, are then fed to the younger termites in the colony. Older termites eat the remains of old fungus.
Geographic range These termites range from Mazatlan in western Mexico south to Panama and northern South America. Habitat Black-headed nasute termites are found along coastal plains, from sea level to about 3,280 feet (1,000 meters). Diet This species feeds on wood, mainly above the ground. The termites build extensive networks of broad tubes along the lower sides of tree branches. Black-headed nasute termites and people Colonies of black-headed nasute termites live in large paperlike nests that are visible on trees, fence posts, and poles. A single colony may have more than one nest. (Illustration by Barbara Duperron. Reproduced by permission.) Colonies of black-headed nasute termites live in large paperlike nests that are visible on trees, fence posts, and poles. A single colony may have more than one nest. (Illustration by Barbara Duperron. Reproduced by permission.)
Otters carry stones as anvils, elephants use twigs to swat flies, primates throw stones and branches not only to defend themselves but also to detach fruit from trees, chimpanzees angle for termites, etc. Remarkably, more forms of tool use have been described from captive than free-ranging animals, and only in some apes do we have sufficient evidence for observational learning of tool use from the field.
However, instances of tool use and construction have been observed in great apes in the wild, particularly in the chimpanzee. The most widely known of these is the chimpanzee's use of twigs to fish for termites in termite mounds at the Gombe Stream Reserve (now Gombe National Park) in Tanzania, East Africa. Following the report of that first observation by Jane Goodall in 1968, many instances of tool use and tool construction have been discovered in chimpanzees and other animals in their natural environment. For termite fishing, the choice of an appropriate branch, twig, or grass blade involves judgments of length, diameter, strength, and flexibility of the tool. Any leaves remaining on a branch are removed, and the tool is dipped into holes in the termite mound. Termites attack the intruding stick, attaching themselves to it, and the chimpanzee withdraws a termite-laden stick and proceeds to eat the termites.
Diet Green woodhoopoes eat caterpillars, beetle larvae, spiders and spider eggs, adult and larval moths, and winged and un-winged termites. They occasionally eat centipedes, millipedes, small lizards, and small fruits. They are well suited for climbing on tree trunks and branches in search for food. Most often, they forage by probing within cracks or bark of tree trunks, branches, and twigs. Males search lower down on the tree, while females tend to forage higher where smaller branches, limbs, and twigs are located. Sometimes green wood-hoopoes dig in animal dung found on the ground, catch insets in flight, or steal food from nests of other species. Prey is often pounded and rubbed against a branch before being eaten.
White-necked puffbirds dig nests into former termite nests built in trees, or nest in holes in the ground. (Illustration by Dan Erickson. Reproduced by permission.) Behavior and reproduction The mating pair defends their territory. They do not migrate. White-necked puffbirds spend much of their time perching without motion on high open branches. Female and male pairs dig nests in former termite nests built in trees usually 40 to 50 feet (12 to 15 meters) off the ground, but can range from 10 to 60 feet (3 to 18 meters). Holes in the ground are also used as nests. Information about incubation and nestling periods and activities are not known.
Social life of clans often include up to four to eight members who often share common runs and trails, excrement depositories, feeding places, territories, and refuges. Running fast, swimming, and climbing are possible, and these animals are able to jump over 3 ft (about 1 m). Enemies include carnivores such as leopards, large owls, snakes, and humans. Normally shelter during the day in a hole among tree roots, rocky crevice, termite mound, cave, or eroded cavity along stream bank.
Behavior and reproduction The gray-crowned babbler is not afraid of heights. It will forage as far as 66 feet (20 meters) up a tree, turning over leaves and poking into crevices in bark. In drier regions where trees do not grow as tall, this bird will also sift through the litter on the forest floor and even scratch in the dirt, looking for food. Sometimes, it will try to catch flying termites on the wing.
Hawks, like other drongos, catching prey in mid-air or from vegetation surfaces and often carrying it in its claws to a perch for dismembering. Diet comprises mainly a range of large flying insects (termites, moths, beetles, dragonflies, ants, bees, locusts, and mantids) nectar is an important supplement.
Saprotrophic fungi are the principle decomposers of nonliving plant and animal detritus in the natural environment, thus recycling chemical elements back to the environment in a form other organisms may utilize. Filamentous fungi usually dominate wood and litter decomposing communities, but under particular ecological circumstances, for e.g., for wood in tropical ecosystems termites may predominate, and under waterlogged conditions bacteria may prevail (Rayner and Boddy 1988). Other wood and litter residents may include yeasts, bacteria, Myxomycetes and invertebrates such as Insecta, Oligochaeta, Acaria, and Nematoda. These may influence fungal community dynamics and consequently affect overall decay rates, either via direct interaction, such as antibiosis or grazing of fungal mycelium or spores, or by indirect interaction through impact on the abiotic environment (Dighton 1997 Rayner and Boddy 1988). Thus, invertebrate activity can increase the exposed surface area for decay...
Habitat Beetle crickets are found in leaf litter of the lowland and middle elevation rainforests, as well as in termite mounds. Beetle crickets are found in leaf litter of the lowland and middle elevation rainforests, as well as in termite mounds. (Illustration by Bruce Worden. Reproduced by permission.) Behavior and reproduction Almost nothing is known about its behavior or reproduction. It may be associated with termites, but the nature of this relationship is unknown.
With Klebsiella or ruminants with Clostridium, it is unlikely that much is contributed to the nitrogen status of the animal because its diet likely contains sufficient fixed nitrogen, which will repress any N2-fixing activity by the bacteria. However, with termites and ship-worms, the associations are significant. Citrobacter infects the intestinal tract of termites and can fix N2 there with the amount fixed and the benefit gained depending on the insect's diet (26, 27). The N2-fixing, cellulose-decomposing bacterium that inhabits the Deshayes gland of woodboring shipworms contributes significantly to the mollusk's well-being by providing up to 35 of its fixed nitrogen requirement (28). The whole area of animal symbioses is under-researched.
Physical characteristics This is the largest and most primitive termite in North America. Winged kings and queens measure 1.0 to 1.2 inches (25.4 to 30.5 millimeters) from head to wingtips, with a wingspan up to 1.9 inches (48.3 millimeters). Their bodies are dark yellowish. Soldiers measure 0.6 to 0.9 inches (15.2 to 22.9 millimeters) in length. The flattened head is widest at the back, and they have very long and roughly toothed jaws. Workers, soldiers, and other castes are whitish yellow or cream in color. Geographic range In the United States these termites are found from central and southeastern Arizona to southern New Mexico and western Texas they also live in Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico. Habitat This species lives in dry habitats between 1,500 and 5,500 feet (457 and 1,676 meters) along canyons and river valleys. The termites are found inside the rotten cores of logs and large branches of living willows, cottonwoods, sycamores, oaks, alders, ash, walnuts, hackberries, and...
Ordinal divisions above and supported by some of the characteristics listed above and below. The common hoopoe and woodhoopoes are related by the unique anvil-shaped bone of the inner ear bone, while their most similar relatives, also with oval eggs and pitted shells, appear to be hornbills, which are defined by their uniquely fused neck vertebrae, the atlas and axis. The two special New World families of todies and mot-mots, as might be expected from their distribution, appear to be each other's closest relatives. These families are linked by species of intermediate characteristics, such as the tody mot-mot (Hylomanes momotula), and the connection is supported by a useful fossil record that shows an earlier and wider diversity in the Northern Hemisphere. Their biology also supports a more distant link with either the kingfishers, reflected in the diminutive kingfisher-like form of some todies and inclusion in the suborder Alcidines, or the bee-eaters, alone in their suborder Meropes...
Be either a natural hole in a tree, a rock face, a building, or the ground, or an excavated tunnel in the ground with a nest chamber at the end. Interestingly, some kingfisher species excavate nest cavities in arboreal termite nests, rotten wood, or even sawdust piles. Most hornbills exhibit the unique habit of sealing the entrance of the nest to form a narrow slit. In all species, both members of a pair generally take part in nesting activities, including defense, construction, and delivery of food. In most species, the female does most or all of the incubation of eggs and the brooding of young chicks, while the male delivers food to the female and the chicks. Only later, when the demands of the growing chicks rise, are both sexes involved in provisioning at the nest. The nesttunnels of bee-eaters, motmots, todies, rollers, and especially kingfishers become quite smelly as nesting progresses due to the accumulation of feces and the remains of food in the chamber. The chicks of...
Planarians (Platyhelminthes) are an excellent example of animals that obtain food through hunting. The vast majority of planarians are carnivorous. They are active and efficient hunters because of their mobility and sensory systems. They feed on many different invertebrates, including rotifers, nematodes, and other planarians, and have several different methods of capture. One of the most common methods is to wrap their body around a prey item and secure it with mucus. An interesting example of this behavior can be found in terrestrial planarians. The terrestrial planarian Microplana termitophaga feeds on termites by living near termite mound ventilation shafts. The planarian stretches itself into the shaft and waves its head until a termite comes in contact, at which time the termite becomes stuck on the mucus produced by the worm. An interesting note is that it is not generally agreed upon that Platyhelminthes are protostomes.
Habitats that provide both food and nest sites are essential to all kingfishers. Most kingfishers have the ability to excavate their own nests in soft earth, wood, or termite nests, besides the use of natural cavities, yet nest sites often remain the most limiting resource. Species that feed mainly on aquatic animals extend from arid seashores to small mountain streams, provided that there are earth banks or termite nests into which most species will excavate their nest tunnels. Species that feed on terrestrial prey occur from arid savanna, provided that there are banks or natural tree holes in which to nest, to dense rainforest, with its greater abundance of nest sites. A subjective analysis of the main habitat requirements suggests that 31 species are primarily aquatic, whether they occupy forest or not 44 species feed mainly in closed-canopy forests and 17 species are most abundant in wooded savanna. Only aquatic species occur in the New World, while forest-dependant species...
Preaxostyla are flagellates that lack mitochondria with cristae. The taxon unites oxymonads (intestinal endobionts primarily of termites) and Trimastix (free-living organisms from oxygen-poor habitats that consume bacteria using a feeding groove). The grouping is supported by SSU rRNA phylogenies and ultrastructure (see Fig. 1.2 and Simpson 2003).
Tropics and transitional zones (subtropics) bordering the tropics to the north and south sufficient numbers of ants and termites is paramount to survival, and is the overriding factor as to whether they will remain in a locality Tropics and transitional zones (subtropics) bordering the tropics to the north and south sufficient numbers of ants and termites is paramount to survival, and is the overriding factor as to whether they will remain in a locality
Linnaeus's snapping termites and people This species is the first termite ever to receive a formal scientific name. Linnaeus's snapping termites use their own waste to build their turret-like nests. This building material dries to form a dark, hard wall. (Illustration by Barbara Duperron. Reproduced by permission.) Linnaeus's snapping termites use their own waste to build their turret-like nests. This building material dries to form a dark, hard wall. (Illustration by Barbara Duperron. Reproduced by permission.)
While we argue here that the honeybee is an emerging model organism in aging research, it has already attained the status of a model organism in several other biological disciplines and it serves as the model social insect. Social evolution has generated a wide variety of social systems with unique selection pressures and adaptations that provide many opportunities for testing ultimate theories of aging, as well as study the proximate causes of naturally evolved aging differentials. Sociality with overlapping generations, cooperative brood care, and (reproductive) division of labor, as in the honeybee, has evolved multiple times in insects, with termites, ants, wasps, and bees as prominent representatives (for other groups see Choe and Crespi, 1997).
Humans owe their relatively long life span to living in societies that reduce the risk of extrinsic mortality. Other organisms in organized societies are also expected to exhibit a similar lengthening of life span over evolutionary time. One hundred million years before the first human stood up and walked, social insects existed in societies with cities, roads, division of labor, farming, slave making, and organized group defenses (Holldobler and Wilson, 1990). Sociality has resulted in a 10- to 100-fold increase in the life span of queens in ants, bees, and termites, a trend that was rigorously demonstrated using phylogenetic methods to compare life span and social structure across the insects (Figure 24.1 Keller and Genoud, 1997). The evolution of sociality and its associated increase in life span show a general trend that has independently evolved several times.
Saddle-back tamarins are primarily frugivorous and insectivorous, but supplement their diet with exudates, nectar, small vertebrates, and soil from arboreal termite mounds. Depending on availability, nectar or exudates may become the dietary staples when fruits are scarce. They search for prey in the leaf litter, and dip into tree holes, crevices, and bromeliads.
A chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) uses a stick to get termites in Sweet-waters Reserve, Kenya. (Photo by Mary Beth Angelo Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) A chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) uses a stick to get termites in Sweet-waters Reserve, Kenya. (Photo by Mary Beth Angelo Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)
Burrows, consisting of long passageways with side chambers for bedding and storage however, they also use the burrows of other animals, termite mounds, or natural crevices such as rock crevices or hollow trees. Burrows usually have several openings that are camouflaged by dense vegetation. Burrow entrances are often plugged with vegetation from the inside. They can climb well and swim, and appear to be mainly solitary.
The male and female breed for life, and share the raising of their latest brood with older offspring. Nests are usually made in natural cavities, but can be formed from termite nests or soft dead wood. Females lay from one to five eggs. The incubation period is between twenty-four and twenty-nine days, with the female performing most of the duties, and other members performing other chores. The nestling period is from thirty-two to forty days. Young birds stay with their parents for several years as helpers.
Diet European rollers eat mostly insects such as beetles, grasshoppers, locusts, crickets, cicadas (suh-KAY-duhz), mantids, wasps, bees, ants, termites, flies, butterflies, and caterpillars. Occasionally, they eat scorpions, centipedes, spiders, worms, frogs, lizards, snakes, and birds. While on their perches, European rollers watch for ground prey. Seeing food, they expose long, broad wings as they attack. They then return to the perch. Before eating prey, they repeatedly strike the food against the perch. They also catch insects in midair. Undigested remains are regurgitated (re-GER-jih-tate-ud brought up from the stomach) in pellets.
However, the human side of the equation must never be forgotten when dealing with invasive mammals, as many of these animals in other non-pest contexts are highly valued. Hence, pestiferous feral cats, rabbits, wild horses, burros, pigs, and other mammals causing problems cannot be treated as the object of extermination like cockroaches or termites. Every mammal seems to be loved by some group, be it hunters and indigenous people who favor wild pigs or animal rights groups who champion freedom for minks. Right or wrong, good or bad, these varied human sensibilities need to be taken into account in designing any integrated pest management program to control invasive mammals. For example, in the western United States, capturing wild horses and letting people adopt them has replaced the old practice of herding the horses into canyons and shooting them. This type of solution may have more to do with politics or social science and consensus building than with biological or ecological...
Behavior and reproduction Rufous-tailed jacamars live alone or in pairs, and like to forage from shrubbery near the ground. They do not migrate, but they do make short journeys. The birds signal danger or anxiety with a sharp trill. Males regularly feed females during courtship. They use former termite nests or earthen banks for their breeding sites. Both mates and females dig out nests to a depth of 7.9 to 19.7 inches (20 to 50 centimeters). Females lay one to four white eggs in ground-hole nests. The incubation period is ninteen to twenty-three days, while the nestling period is nineteen to twenty-six days. Both males and females incubate and take care of young. Nestlings hatch with whitish down feathers and are fed insects, especially butterflies.
Diet Like all toucans, toco toucans eat a variety of fruits, but mostly figs. They also eat caterpillars, termites, and eggs and nestlings of other birds. Pairs preen each other and fence with their bills like swordfighters. They often nest in palm-tree cavities and can dig the hole a little deeper. They also nest in burrows, which they dig in soft, sandy riverbanks, or nest in tree-termite nests that have been opened by woodpeckers. A typical clutch is two to four white eggs. The male and female take turns incubating for eighteen days. The nestlings are fed insects at first. They fledge after forty-three to fifty-two days.
Gray woodpeckers eat insects, ants, termites, beetle larvae, and other arthropods. They search for their food on the ground, in the air, and on live and dead trees. (Illustration by Gillian Harris. Reproduced by permission.) Gray woodpeckers eat insects, ants, termites, beetle larvae, and other arthropods. They search for their food on the ground, in the air, and on live and dead trees. (Illustration by Gillian Harris. Reproduced by permission.) Diet Their diet consists of insects, ants, termites, beetle larvae, and other arthropods. They forage on the ground, in live and dead trees, and in the air.
Diet Their food includes insects, insect larvae, ants, termites, beetles, slugs, grubs, snails, millipedes, caterpillars, and earthworms. The birds sit quietly and watch for prey. If none is found, they go to another perch or fly down to the ground to forage among the leaf-litter of the forest floor.
A short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) feeds on termites. (Photo by Animals Animals K. Atkinson, OSF. Reproduced by permission.) A short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) feeds on termites. (Photo by Animals Animals K. Atkinson, OSF. Reproduced by permission.)
Begins feeding after sunset, catching insects on the wing for 30-60 minutes. Flight low, often through bushes. Then rests for 60-120 minutes before foraging throughout night, fly-catching from a perch. Eats primarily grasshoppers, moths, beetles, termites, mosquitoes, and other Diptera.
The species eats mainly insects and fruits. In the Negev of Israel, beetles, ants, termites and grasshoppers were all snapped up together with dates and the fruits of other palms. In central Asia, olives are a staple food. Rats and mice are taken when encountered but constitute less than 10 of the diet. The species can survive without drinking water. Its fluid comes from its food and it has been calculated that the water provided by food may often be more important than the calories. Foraging is almost always solitary and consists of slow and systematic investigation stones and bushes in search on insects. The foxes dash after small vertebrates when flushed.
Termites and beetles (adults and larvae) are the principal food. Insect food is often detected by sound. The grazing termite, Hodotermes, makes a noise as it chews grass stems, and bat-eared foxes can hear the sound of termites foraging on the underside of ungulate dung and the noise of beetle larvae in a dung beetle ball. Mice and other small vertebrate prey will be snapped up if encountered and may be common in the diet when young pups are present. The bat-eared fox remains an inconspicuous but widespread inhabitant of dry areas in southwest and northeast Africa. It is not persecuted and has benefited from cattle ranching in southern Africa which creates short grass habitat, and grazing termites. Disease epidemics sometimes decimate local populations.
To 12 mi2 (30 km2), but interactions between the pair are said to be very uncommon. Their bold white markings on the tail and throat allow visual signals to be communicated at a distance as does the harsh bark and typical patterns of marking by urine and feces. Maned wolves may leave feces high up on rocks and termite mounds.
Black-headed nasute termite Cubacubana spelaea Dead-leaf mantid Dead leaf mimetica Emperor scorpion European earwig Forest giant German cockroach Giant water bug Giraffe-necked weevil Green lacewing Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Hair follicle mite Hercules beetle Hispaniola hooded katydid Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth Javan leaf insect Jungle nymph Leaf-cutter ant Linnaeus's snapping termite Madeira cockroach Mantid lacewing Mediterranean fruit fly
Walkingstick Common harvestman Eastern dobsonfly Eastern subterranean termite European earwig European mantid European marsh crane fly German cockroach Giant salmonfly Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth Hair follicle mite Honeybee House centipede Human head body louse Indian mealmoth
An opportunistic aerial insectivore, congregating loosely at concentrations of food and environmental disturbances that flush it, such as fire, grazing domestic stock, field clearing, and ploughing. Black drongos even chase other birds piratically for captured prey, and will sometimes settle on the ground to pick up ants and emerging termites. Their staple diet comprises a range of large, hard-cased field insects locusts and crickets, beetles, and bees and also some moths and butterflies and, infrequently, small reptiles, birds, and bats. Nectar is an important supplement, and the drongos may play a useful role in plant pollination.
Dry grassy plains, especially overgrazed or burnt areas with a few bushes or termite mounds. Insects, especially ants, also flies, beetles, locusts, termites, and caterpillars. Monogamous, territorial, nesting in hole in ground or termite mound nest of straw, grass, and leaves three to four or six eggs, incubation not established.
Open grassy ground with termite mounds and scattered bushes. Usually in pairs or small groups, often 5-15 scattered over a small area, perched on bushes, mounds of earth or termite mounds. Insects, especially moths, and termites, beetles, spiders, and some fruits. Mostly monogamous but cooperative groups assist at some nests pairs remain together for several years. Nests in tunnel up to 5 ft (1.5 m) long, dug by both sexes in the side of an earth bank, termite mound, or within an animal burrow two to five eggs, incubated only by female for 14-16 days young fledge after 21-23 days.
Walkingstick Common harvestman Devil's coach-horse Eastern dobsonfly Eastern subterranean termite European earwig European mantid European marsh crane fly Flat-backed millipede German cockroach Giant salmonfly Giant whip scorpion Greenhouse camel cricket Greenhouse whitefly Gypsy moth termite Yellow fever mosquito Zebra jumping spider
Gray potoos live in the rainforests and grasslands of Mexico and Central and South America, where they eat moths, grasshoppers, beetles, termites, and fireflies. (Patricio Robles Gil Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Gray potoos live in the rainforests and grasslands of Mexico and Central and South America, where they eat moths, grasshoppers, beetles, termites, and fireflies. (Patricio Robles Gil Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Diet Gray potoos eat moths, grasshoppers, beetles, termites, and fireflies.
Chinese pangolins have a head and body length of 21-32 in (50-80 cm), a tail length of 10-16 in (26-40 cm), and a weight of 4-20 lb (2-9 kg). They have about 18 rows of overlapping scales. The yellow-brown scales are bony, up to 2 in (5 cm) across, and encompass all of the body (including the tail) except for its snout, cheeks, throat, inner limbs, and belly. They have hairs at the base of the body scales. Their limbs are slender with comparatively long and sharp claws, an important aid in climbing. Chinese pangolins have a small, pointed head, a very round body, and a narrow mouth. The nose is fleshy and has nostrils at the end, and the thin tongue, as long as 16 in (40 cm), scoops up ants and termites. Their small, external ears are better developed than are those of the other pangolins. The strongly prehensile tail and long claws make this pangolin very agile in trees and a powerful bur-rower. They inhabit subtropical and deciduous forests and grasslands. Burrows are often built...
They tear open termite mounds and ant nests, both in trees and on the ground, with their large claws, and lick up insects and their larvae. They are selective in what species of termites they eat. The termites of the genera Amitermes, Ancistrotermes, Macrotermes, Microcerotermes, Microtermes, Odontotermes, and Trinervitermes are most often eaten by first detecting (with their keen sense of smell) these preferred genera before opening the hill.