A number of in vitro and in vivo assay systems are currently available in addition to those described in this review. These assays have served the scientific community extremely well during the past three decades by identifying genotoxins among the existing chemicals, as well as by preventing the introduction of new mutagens. The molecular biology revolution has already provided us with newer and highly sensitive tools, such as the gene chips for the rapid screening of chemicals for biological activity including interactions with DNA. These in silico technologies, in conjunction with the traditional assays, are expected to provide us with better models for defining as well as understanding the dose-response relationships in genetic toxicology and carcinogenicity.

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