Treadmill Cardio Workouts
Exercise treadmill testing is the gold standard for the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness or aerobic capacity. The results of exercise treadmill testing can be used to establish baseline cardiorespiratory fitness to facilitate the creation of a tailored exercise prescription. Exercise treadmill testing can also be utilized following exercise training as a post-treatment measure of change. In clinical cardiology, treadmill tests are routinely used to evaluate the presence and prognosis of ischemic heart disease. Trained personnel are required to administer and supervise the graded exercise treadmill test and specialized equipment is necessary to assess VO2max. Typically, heart rate and electrocardiographic data are recorded during the treadmill test, which permits the monitoring of adverse events, such as cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia. Sphygmomanometry may also be employed to assess blood pressure. Expired air is collected to assess parameters such as maximum oxygen...
The 6-minute walk test (6MWT Butland et al, 1982) is a commonly performed test of functional capacity. The 6MWT is a self-paced, timed test of the total distance that a patient is able to walk in 6 min. Patients are instructed to walk as quickly as possible for the duration of the test, with voluntary rest permitted. Although other timed walk tests exist (e.g., 2-minute and 12-minute walk tests Butland et al, 1982 McGavin et al, 1976), the 6MWT is the functional walk test of choice for clinical and research purposes as it is easy to administer, inexpensive, and considered to be reflective of activities of daily living (Lipkin et al, 1986). The 6MWT has been shown to be well-tolerated by patients with diminished functional capacity, thereby permitting the estimation of functional capacity in patients who are unable to achieve maximum treadmill tests (e.g., heart failure patients Lipkin et al, 1986 Peeters and Mets, 1996).
The LTPA has been shown to have satisfactory test-retest reliability at 5 weeks (r .79-.88 Folsom et al, 1986) and at 1 year (r .69 Jacobs et al, 1993 Richardson et al, 1994). Total AMI has been found to be moderately correlated with total exercise treadmill time (r .45-.52 Taylor et al, 1978) and VO2peak(r .47 Richardson et al, 1994) but weakly correlated with 48-h Caltrac accelerometer readings (r .23 Richardson et al, 1994). Findings from the Minnesota Heart survey and the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial indicate that higher leisure time physical activity (assessed with the LTPA) is associated with fewer coronary risk factors (Folsom et al, 1985) and reduced risk of CHD morbidity and mortality (Leon et al, 1987).
The MPTP-lesioned mouse model has proven valuable to investigate potential mechanisms of neurotoxic-induced dopaminergic cell death. For example, mechanisms under investigation have included mitochondrial dysfunction, energy (ATP) depletion, free-radical production, apoptosis, and glutamate excitotoxicity (51). In addition to its utility in studying acute cell death, the MPTP-lesioned model also provides an opportunity to study injury-induced neuroplasticity. The MPTP-lesioned mouse displays the return of striatal dopamine several weeks to months after lesion-ing (45,47,59,60). The molecular mechanism of this neuroplasticity of the injured basal ganglia is an area of investigation in our laboratory and in others, and appears to encompass both neurochemical and morphological components. In addition, it has been shown that this plasticity may be facilitated through activity-dependent processes using treadmill training (61,62).
With respect to increasing exercise performance, Hsu and colleagues reported that ginseng attenuated the formation of creatine kinase induced by submaximal exercise in subjects undergoing a treadmill test (27). However, no increase in aerobic work capacity was noted. In a related study of exercise performance effects, Siberian ginseng administration had no effect on steady-state substrate utilization or any physiological measure in individuals undergoing prolonged cycling exercise (28). The study was conducted in a
Bradykinesia, more than any other cardinal sign of PD, correlates well with striatal dopamine deficiency. Measuring brain dopamine metabolism of rats running on straight and circular treadmills, Freed and Yamamoto (26) found that dopamine metabolism in the caudate nucleus was more affected by posture and direction of movement. Dopamine metabolism in the nucleus accumbens was more linked to the speed and direction of the antagonists, appears to be normal in PD, and is probably more under cerebellar than basal ganglia control (23). In other words, in PD, the simple motor program to execute a fast ballistic movement is intact, but it fails because the initial agonist burst is insufficient. The degree of bradykinesia correlates with a reduction in the striatal fluorodopa uptake measured by positron emission tomography (PET) scans and with nigral damage (27). Studies performed in monkeys made parkinsonian with the toxin (MPTP) (28), and in patients with PD provide evidence that...
The heart rate response to treadmill exercise is shown for normally innervated subjects (solid line) and patients with cardiac denervation after heart transplantation (dashed line). The denervated patients have higher resting heart rates, but heart rates rise more slowly with exercise because the increase in heart rates depends primarily on circulating catecholamines. After cessation of exercise, heart rates in the denervated patients continue to rise briefly and then fall slowly as circulating catecholamines are metabolized. Fig. 8. The heart rate response to treadmill exercise is shown for normally innervated subjects (solid line) and patients with cardiac denervation after heart transplantation (dashed line). The denervated patients have higher resting heart rates, but heart rates rise more slowly with exercise because the increase in heart rates depends primarily on circulating catecholamines. After cessation of exercise, heart rates in the denervated patients continue to...
The patient is exercised at a set speed and gradient on a treadmill (Fig. 15.4) for a specified time or until the onset of claudication. The ankle pressures are measured before and at 1-min intervals after completion of exercise until the pressure returns to the pre-exercise level. Normal patients show a rise after exercise due to the increase in systolic pressure and the peripheral vasodilation. In patients with occlusive disease, the pressure falls after exercise and the extent and duration of the fall crudely correlates with the severity of the arterial disease. This is a useful test for distinguishing between arterial and non-arterial claudication.
The Donts of Treadmill Buying
Though competitive runners are advised to run on the road, there are several reasons why you should buy treadmills anyway. You might have a family which means that your schedule does not have the flexibility it once had.