Carbohydrate Structures Are Ubiquitous In Nature

Carbohydrates that influence the patho glycobiology of pathogens are ubiquitous in nature. Carbohydrates in general play an essential role in cell biology, being involved in cell-cell communication, cell proliferation, and differentiation (cell growth). Aberrant glycosylation is a basis for uncontrolled cell growth, invasiveness, and increased metastatic potential of tumor cells.14 Glyconjugate forms found on normal cells mediate the adhesion of pathogens and toxins to host cells. Much of what...

Viral Drug Resistance

HIV-1 develops resistance to RT and to PR inhibitors as a result of errors introduced during replication by reverse transcriptase and selection for continued replication. A number of characteristics raised the possibility that PR could be an Achilles' heel in the HIV genome. For example, the impact of drug-resistant mutations on PRactivity, the small target (297 nucleotides) for mutagenesis that PR presents in the 10-kb HIV-1 genome, and the number of mutations (four or more) required for...

Htlv Vaccine Development

Epidemiological studies demonstrate that HTLV-I is endemic in Japan, the Caribbean, Central America, and certain parts of the African continent, The number of people worldwide infected with HTLV-I alone has been estimated at between 10 and 20 million, with 1-5 ultimately developing disease. A vaccine against HTLV-I is desperately needed to control the spread of this serious illness. In order to design a vaccine for HTLV-I, it is first necessary to document and understand the immune responses...

Influence Of Carbohydrate Moieties On The Immunogenicity Of

Containing most of the documented binding sites for virus-neutralizing antibodies, gp120 is a prime target for the humoral arm of the human immune response to HIV-1 function. Knowledge of the structure, function, and immunogenicity of gp120 is therefore central to several applied areas of HIV research vaccine development, immunotherapeutics, and rational FIGURE 2. Schematic of exposure of continuous antibody epitopes on gp120. The darker the shading of blocked-in areas, the less accessible are...

Ami R Shah David B Weiner and Jean D Boyer 1 Introduction

The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is an RNA retrovirus belonging to the lentivirus family that selectively infects and kills CD4+ T cells and macrophages resulting in immune system failure. HIV-1 is transmitted from individual by blood and sexual contact. The spread of HIV-1 infection continues to be a major public health concern worldwide. The United Nations Joint Programme on AIDS reports that an estimated 8500 people become infected with HIV daily and that 90 of these newly infected...

Live Attenuated SIV

A final mucosal HIV vaccine strategy that will be mentioned is attenuated HIV. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of attenuated HIV as a vaccine, attenuated SIV has been utilized as a representative model. The fact that attenuated SIV was pathogenic after oral inoculation to neonatal macaques indicates that attenuated HIV will not be safe for use in the human popula-tion.13 However, mucosal inoculation with attenuated SIV may provide a means to identify the type of immune responses needed for...

Rabbit Vaccine Studies

Vaccine studies employing the outbred rabbit challenge model have also been successfully carried out, and is the most common model.57,114,116,134 This model, like the rat challenge model, is a model for HTLV-I infection only, as infected rabbits do not develop HTLV-I-associated diseases under normal circumstances. Similarly, most challenge stocks for rabbit challenge studies are xenogeneic and are usually ofhuman origin. In some studies, whole blood from an HTLV-I-infected rabbit was used to...