Identification of Perinatal HIV Exposure

Universal counseling and mandatory offering of HIV testing is now a standard of care for all pregnant women in the United States and is endorsed by the U.S. Public Health Service, the American Academy of Pedi atrics, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Early identification of HIV in infected women allows for management of HIVexposed and HIV-infected children, as well as optimal treatment options for the infected woman. This allows for the provision of antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy and labor and to the newborn to reduce HIV transmission from mother to child.19 Counseling concerning the risk of HIV transmission through breast milk is given, and HIV-exposed infants may receive PCP prophylaxis pending early diagnostic evaluation between 4-6 weeks to 4 months.36 In the event that the mother has not been tested during pregnancy, the offering of HIV testing, appropriate counseling, obtaining informed consent, and offering of testing to the neonate is the standard.

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