Immune Responses

Numerous routes of immunization have been evaluated for their ability to induce mucosal immune responses in humans and nonhuman primates. These include immunization via the nasal, oral (gastric), rectal, vaginal, urethral, and tracheal routes.10'303179-83 Although parenteral immunizations generally do not induce mucosal immune responses, a specialized intramuscular immunization known as targeted iliac lymph node immunization has been reported to induce mucosal immune responses in nonhuman primates.15 This route of immunization is thought to induce mucosal immune responses because the antigen is injected near the iliac lymph node that drains the genitorectal mucosa and is therefore processed as a mu-cosally administered antigen.15 Exactly what route of immunization will be optimal for the induction of mucosal anti-HIV SIgA and CTL responses and protection against mucosal HIV infection remains to be determined. Specific results concerning the induction of anti-HIV mucosal immune responses will be discussed below according to the type of immunogen used.

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