Vaccination Against Varicella and Zoster Its Development and Progress

One ought never to turn one's back on a threatened danger and try to run away from it. If you do that, you will double the danger. But if you meet it promptly and without flinching, you will reduce the danger by half. At one time in history, it seems, rash diseases tended to be lumped together under the term pox and these illnesses must have been very common. Syphilis was known as the great pox and smallpox was considered yet another pox illness. The well known quotation from Shakespeare's...

Introduction

Vaccine development has now entered its fourth century. It is therefore, time to look back and consider the history of the field, which is now long and illustrious. In 1995, I organized a meeting in Paris that brought together a number of people who were intimately familiar with particular vaccines, and who in some cases were the actual developers of those vaccines, to talk about how those vaccines were developed. Their talks were transcribed and edited but never received wide dissemination. In...

Attenuated Virus Vaccine

It remained for John Enders 7 and his laboratory colleagues to propagate the virus successfully in roller tube cultures of human renal epithelial cells in the mid-1950s. The cytopathic effects observed were those of cell fusion with large syncytia containing multiple nuclei which revealed easinophilic nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions when fixed and stained. These were identical to those observed in lungs, gastrointestinal tract and other organs of patients who had died of measles. This...

Bacterial Polysaccharide Vaccines

Capsulated bacteria, Gram-positive or Gram-negative, cause a variety of infections in man. Prominent among them are streptococci of Lancefield's groups A, B, and C, staphylococci, meningococci, Haemophilus influenzae type b, klebsiellas, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi, to name but some. Since the description of the capsule as an attribute of bacteria more than a century ago, increasing knowledge of its structure and role in interactions of these organisms with their environment has...

Hepatitis A

The history of hepatitis A research and the development of the vaccine is identifiable principally in the pioneering work carried out in our laboratories since 1969 2 . An effective vaccine has also been developed by others, at the SmithKline Beecham Laboratories in Belgium 19 . Research studies in our laboratories on hepatitis A are separable into two time periods (Table 3) the marmoset era and the vaccine era 2 . The initial success was the isolation of the Costa Rican CR326 strain of...

Oral Polio Vaccine and the Results of Its

Joseph Melnick in collaboration with Stanley Plotkin Reports on clinical and epidemiological aspects of poliomyelitis came in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from von Heine, Medin, and Wickman in Europe, and Caverly in the USA, but basic studies on poliovirus only began in 1908 when Landsteiner, Popper, and Levaditi, again in Europe, transmitted the disease to monkeys, inducing typical histopathology lesions in the animals spinal cords. Shortly thereafter, Flexner and...

References

The Origin of the Vaccine Inoculation. London, UK DN Shury, 1801 2. Tanganyika Territory. Annual Reports of the Principal Medical Officer and the Senior Sanitary Officer. Period. November 1918 to November 1920, 67-68 3. Collier LH. The development of a stable smallpox vaccine. JHyg Lond 1955 53 76-101 4. Fenner F, Henderson DA, Arita I, Jezek Z, Ladnyi ID. Smallpox and its Eradication, Geneva, Switzerland World Health Organization, 1988 392-393 5. Fenner F, Henderson DA, Arita I,...

After Pasteur History of New Rabies Vaccines

There are questions which we could never get over if we were not delivered from them by the operation of nature. Kafka, Reflection on Sin, Pain, Hope and the True Way One of the major problems presented by the Pasteur rabies vaccine and its numerous varieties was the presence of animal nervous tissue in the final product and the potential allergic responses to that tissue, leading to encephalitis in humans and animals. As the vaccine was also occasionally applied indiscriminately to subjects...

Conclusion

It remains to be determined whether the circulation of measles virus can be totally controlled by the currently available vaccine or whether newer products will be required that permit immunization of younger infants under the cover of maternal antibody. A number of laboratories have returned to the original monkey models to investigate the possibility of such approaches using experimental vaccine prepared in ISCOMS, vectored recombinants or other more current preparations. The EPI of WHO has...

History of Hepatitis

Hepatitis is an apt subject for discussions of the history of vaccination, since it is clearly an example of recognizable diseases of ancient recorded history, as well as of clinical diseases of diverse and multiple etiologies. Hepatitis, with its distinguishing yellow jaundice, must have been a recognizable feature for an illness of human beings ever since the species discarded its hairy overcoat in favor of the buff. Recognition of contagiousness Pope Zaccharius Epidemic jaundice Obstructive...

The Association of HPV and Cancer

It has been known for many decades that filterable transmissible agents, i.e. viruses, cause cutaneous and mucosal papillomas (warts) in animal models and in humans 1 . The oncogenic potential of papillomaviruses was first demonstrated by Payton Rous and J.W. Beard in the 1930s. They observed that epidermal papillomas induced in domestic rabbits by Shope cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) could progress to squamous cell carcinomas, and that viral oncogenicity was enhanced by chemical...

Typhoid Fever Morbidity and Mortality in Relation to Vaccination A Debate

It is generally considered that the large introduction of various forms of killed cellular typhoid vaccine in Europe, North America, Australia, and Japan as the turn of the twentieth century, and the sustained immunization policies that followed, contributed to the tremendous drop in the incidence of typhoid fever in these regions. This view may be considered rather simplistic since typhoid fever morbidity had already started to decrease at the end of the nineteenth century, due to the constant...

Central Nervous System Involvement in the Clinical Application of Certain Live Attenuated Mumps Vaccines

It was observed around the turn of the present decade that certain mumps virus vaccines used singly or in combination with measles and rubella viruses were insufficiently attenuated and cause aseptic meningitis or meningoencephalitis. The Leningrad-3 strain was reported as early 1986 14 to be underattenuated, causing about one case of meningitis per 1,000 vaccinated persons. Prime attention in Western Europe 30-33 , Canada 34 and Japan 35, 36 was focused on the neuropathogenicity of the Urabe...

Vaccine Thermostability The Chink in the Armor

A major limitation for use of yellow fever 17D vaccine in tropical countries has been its thermolability, both in the lyophilized state and after reconstruction. The early vaccines were produced without stabilizers and were found to deteriorate very rapidly when exposed to temperatures greater than 20 C 88, 89 . Between 1940 and 1970, this problem was a major obstacle in the distribution and use of the 17D vaccine, especially in Africa, and one of the principal reasons why immunization was not...

Pasteur and Toussaint and Their Competition for an Anthrax Vaccine

During his studies on chicken cholera Pasteur never forgot anthrax, his main subject and source of funding of that time. In July 1880, Toussaint, a competitor in the field of anthrax, disclosed a vaccine to immunize sheep and dogs. The concept of vaccine was from Pasteur, but the vaccine technique, from Toussaint defibrinated blood from a sheep freshly dead of anthrax heated at 55 C for 10 min with or without a filtration through paper or the addition of carbolic acid. Toussaint did experiments...

Introduction of Typhoid Vaccination A Wright or R Pfeiffer

It now seems clear that this controversy should no longer continue and that both authors be given equal credit for the discovery of typhoid vaccine 7 . In September 1896, in the Lancet article, Almoth Wright, a British researcher, reported on the use of oral calcium chloride for the treatment of serous hemorrhages in patients suffering from defective blood coagulopathies, and also demonstrated its usefulness to control local side-effects after subcutaneous injection of typhoid bacilli 8 . In...

The Adverse Effects of Subunit and Acellular Pertussis Vaccines

A description of the results of Phase 1, 2, and 3 trials for all the vaccines in Table 1 cannot be made here, but to summarize, the rates of local reactions are significantly lower for all acellular vaccines than for (any) whole-cell vaccine. The rate of local reactions to a monocomponent vaccine is also lower than that of a two-component vaccine 17 . It increases with successive doses of acellular vaccine, while the opposite is true for whole-cell vaccines. An acellular vaccine booster in a...

Pasteur and the Treatment of Rabies

In December 1880, Pasteur was informed of the presence, in a Paris hospital, of a young boy dying of rabies. He tried to isolate the microbe of rabies from the saliva of the boy however, the inoculation of the saliva did not give rabies to rabbit, the animal species recommended by Victor Galtier, professor at the Veterinary school of Lyon, to study rabies in laboratory. Galtier also had shown that it was possible to induce immunity in sheep with rabies contaminated saliva inoculated by the...

Attenuated Human Rotavirus Vaccine Candidates A Monovalent Cell Culture Passaged Virus A Neonatal Strain and Cold

Volunteer studies were carried out with a human G1 rotavirus (the D strain) stool filtrate derived from an infant with diarrhea 17 . Oral administration of the inoculum induced a diarrheal illness in certain volunteers, allowing us to determine correlates of susceptibility to challenge 17, 18 . This gave us confidence that a vaccine could be evaluated in this model, an important prelude to the development of a vaccine for infants and young children. Human rotaviruses were considered to be...

Conjugate Technology for Other Pathogens Whose Surface Polysaccharides Are Protective Antigens

Clinical trials established the value of multivalent PS vaccines for the prevention of Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae and protective levels of anti-CP for these two pathogenic species have been proposed. Vaccine-induced PS antibodies initiate complement-dependent killing (lysis for meningococci and opsonophagocytosis for pneumococci) as well as inhibition of colonization. Moreover, the extensive experience with passive immunization of patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and...

Acceptance of Jennerain Vaccination

However, the Chinese did not accept Jennerian vaccination exactly as it was understood in the West. There was a construction of the Chinese interpretation of vaccination, deciphering it effectiveness in terms conforming to Chinese orthodox medical thought. Basically, the classic notion o taidu (foetal toxin), to which the principle of variolation and vaccination was accommodated, persisted. According to this concept, toxic matters from the father and the mother - a result of physical desire,...

Individual and Combined Live Measles Mumps and Rubella Vaccines

The combined live measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine was the realization of a long-term plan to create single-dose bi- and trivalent combinations of these three vaccines 40 . Development of the combined vaccines depended on prior development of the individual vaccines. Measles virus vaccine (Rubeovax) 26 , which was licensed in 1963 using the original Enders' Edmonston B strain 41 , was so virulent that reactogenicty needed to be reduced by giving virus to children simultaneously with measles...

Neurologic Accidents Caused by the French Neurotropic Vaccine

Neurologic reactions noted by French workers during the wide-scale use of the mouse brain vaccine were attributed to the inherent neurotropism of the vaccine to low doses and a delayed immune response when the vaccine administered by poor scarification technique or after deterioration during field use. The evidence suggested that the accidents were the result of invasion of the brain by the vaccine virus, and not an allergic demyelinating process of the presence of an adventitious agent in the...

The Race Is On

Early in vaccine development, the difficulties of making an effective inactivated vaccine were appreciated 11 and several groups began to think rather of attenuated virus vaccines (Table 3). Paul Parkman had moved to the laboratory of Harry Meyer at the former Bureau of Biologics of the FDA, where he grew rubella virus in weekly serial passages in AGMK cells. Seventy-seven passages were required before in vitro markers were sufficiently changed to warrant tests in man 12 . When clinical trials...

Simian Human Reassortants Rota Shield

RotaShield, the first reassortant rotavirus vaccine candidate, consisted of simian-human rotavirus reassortants that contained a single human gene (i.e., coding for human vp7) and the remaining ten genes from RRV 62 . As was true for RRV, these RRV-human reassortant viruses were prepared by Kapikian and his team at NIH. RotaShield, produced by Wyeth-Lederle, contained three simian-human reassortants of G types 1, 2, and 4 on an RRV background. The vaccine also contained RRV alone, which is...