Surviving World War III

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more...

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Outbreaks and Investigations

In Ernest Hemingway's novel The Sun Also Rises, when Mike Campbell, a Scottish expatriate and World War I veteran, is asked how he went bankrupt, he replies, gradually, then suddenly.'' Often, this is how outbreaks of disease appear. Outbreaks can wreak much havoc before they are noticed, and they can grow at an exponential rate before they are brought under control. Some outbreaks spread so far we call them epidemics, or pandemics if they encompass the entire planet. Some outbreaks have never been brought under control. The only certainty is that an outbreak becomes more difficult to stop through human intervention the longer it goes unnoticed.

Patterns Of Occurrence

SEER data show steadier rates in the 1990s among white males in the United States and even suggest a decline in the late 1990s among men aged 20 to 24 years.19 It is tempting to interpret this report as a hint that the epidemic may be abating, but past instances of stabilized rates proved to be only perturbations in the general upward trend. Rates have traditionally been more stable at the extremes of age, that is, among boys and among men over 60 years of age. One study found that the incidence of testicular cancer in boys (up to 4 years of age) and very young men (15 to 19 years of age) did not increase in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden during the period of 1960 to 1985.18 However, the authors noted that age-specific incidence continued to rise in all other age groups throughout this period, and they concluded that these younger cases may differ etiologically from the others. An additional set of analyses91516 showed stabilization of risk in several cohorts born around the time of the...

History of Human Subjects Research The Nuremberg Code

Before World War Two, no internationally acknowledged code of ethics for human subjects research existed. During the war, Nazi physicians conducted many experiments of dubious value on thousands of prisoners. The experiments were conducted without the prisoners' informed consent and many prisoners were mutilated and killed. The discovery of the atrocities committed by the Nazi physicians under the guise of experimentation led to the Nuremberg War Crimes Physicians Trial of Nazi physicians for crimes against humanity'' consisting of experments upon concentration camp prisoners and others without their voluntary consent resulting in murders, brutalities, cruelties, tortures, atrocities and other inhuman acts'' (The Nuremberg Code, 1947). The trial judges included in their 1947 verdict a list of rules for

Evolution and systematics

The phylum Tardigrada belongs to the Panarthropoda group, together with the onychophorans (velvet worms) and arthropods, and comprises almost 1,000 described species. However, taxonomists expect that at least 10,000 species exist. The phylum is divided into three classes Hetero-tardigrada, Eutardigrada, and Mesotardigrada. The latter was established on the basis of a single species, Thermozodium esakii, found in a hot sulfur spring in Nagasaki, Japan. However, the species has not been recorded since the end of World War II. The Heterotardigrada consists of two orders, Arthro-tardigrada and Echiniscoidea, and is characterized by the presence of cephalic appendages, so-called cirri and clavae, that function as mechano- and chemoreceptors, respectively. The arthrotardigrades are marine forms that usually have median cirrus and telescopic legs, with or without toes, while the echiniscids are terrestrial armored or marine unarmored forms. The echiniscids have no median cirrus and the legs...

Social Factors In Personality Disorders

The strongest evidence for sociocultural factors in personality disorders has come from cohort effects (changes in prevalence over short time periods). Antisocial personality, as well as other impulsive spectrum disorders, has become more common in adolescents and young adults, both in North America and Europe, since World War II (Rutter & Smith, 1999).

The Influence of Litigation

A very common issue in litigation proceedings is the extent to which the litigation procedure influences symptoms or symptom reporting. In the case of PTSD, there is a long tradition of attributing reported symptoms to 'compensation neurosis'. After World War I, authorities perceived that compensation for shell shock contributed to the persistence of symptoms after the war (Bonhoeffer, 1926). As a result, The National

Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

As early as the days of Hippocrates, hepatitis has been described as a disease that occurs in the young and shows the cardinal symptom of jaundice, which sometimes develops into a critical condition. Ironically, research on hepatitis progressed rapidly during World War II because injuries and the terrible sanitary conditions of the battlefields caused serious hepatitis epidemics. People recognized that hepatitis could be classified into two types infectious and serumal. The former became known as hepatitis A and the latter as hepatitis B. After the war, the hunt for hepatitis viruses had begun. First, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) was identified in 1967 by Blumberg, who was awarded a Nobel Prize in recognition of his discovery. Next, the hepatitis A virus (HAV) was discovered in 1973. These discoveries were thought to have clarified the causes of hepatitis, but by the following year, it was acknowledged that many cases of hepatitis were not caused by either HAV or HBV (Prince et al.,...

Neuropsychology Behavioral Neurology And Neuropsychiatry

Sir William Osler first used the term neuropsychology in 1913 however, neuropsychology, at least as a clinical endeavor, did not emerge as a subdiscipline of psychology until the 1940s, largely in response to demands for the assessment and rehabilitation of brain-injured soldiers in World War II (1). The likely first published use of a clinical neuropsychological test with persons having parkinsonian syndrome is Shaskin et al.'s (2) administration of the Wechsler Bellevue Scale, an intelligence scale, to postencephalitic parkinsonians. Neuropsychology shares with behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry the goal of relating behavior to underlying brain structure and function (3). However, neuropsychology's principal clinical method, namely its standardized, quantitative, norm-referenced approach to the evaluation

Epidemiology Of Conventional

Conventional cross-borders wars were the most common forms of extended violence prior to 1992. Advanced weaponry, despite claims of improved technology and targeting, respect for the Geneva Conventions, and military discipline, allow for vulnerable civilians to be killed or injured more easily. In World War I, 5 of casualties were civilian, by World War II 50 were civilian. In the Vietnam war 80 of casualties were civilian, but some would argue that this represented a civil war more similar to the complex emergencies of the last two decades.

The Basic Reproductive Number

When an infection is at equilibrium, R 1.0, as noted above. If R0 is greater than R (R0 R), a proportion of the potential transmission events implied by R0 will fail because a proportion of potential contacts are already immune to infection in these circumstances, and only effective contacts with susceptible individuals will result in transmission. The symbol X is often used to represent the number of susceptible individuals in a population of N individuals, and x ( X N) to represent the proportion of susceptible individuals in the population. In a theoretically uniformly homogeneous population, if x* represents the proportion of susceptible individuals when the infection is at equilibrium, x* can be used to estimate R0 as R0x* R 1.0. Anderson and May (1991) quote from their earlier work a range of values for R0 for different infections and different epidemiological settings that for measles, for example, varying from 5 to 6 in post-World War I Kansas, USA to 16 to 18 in post-World...

Modernization Approach To Aging And Ethnicity

We can gainfully compare the experience of immigrants moving from agricultural to urban-industrial environments to analysis of modernized societies and less modernized ones or the modernization of one society over time. If modernization weakens the extended family and subsequent status of the elderly, likewise, the transplantation of a group from a traditional society to a modern one can be expected to have similar consequences (Markides & Mindel, 1987). Conversely, one could argue that immigrant enclaves are more tightly knit than the communities from which they emigrated because of their minority status. (Recall the notion of ethnogenesis introduced earlier.) Accordingly, immigrants would have strong family ties and commitment to ethnic heritage because of their isolation, subjective feelings of being a cultural outsider, the foreign environment, and the need to reinforce the familiar. Modernization theory aids us in understanding the experiences of the Mexican American elderly...

The Institute And People Involved

The Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) began as a network of bacteriology laboratories in England and Wales, the Emergency Public Health Laboratory Service (EPHLS), brought together in 1939 to combat the threat of epidemics during the Second World War (Williams, 1985). In 1946 a permanent service was established and subsequently enlarged to include 63 laboratories by 1969 to monitor and control the spread of infectious disease in peacetime. In 1946 a collection of reference laboratories was assembled on the site of the Government Lymph Establishment at Colindale in North West London, where previously smallpox vaccine was produced. This formed the Central Public Health Laboratory (CPHL) and included the Virus Reference Laboratory (VRL), the initial function of which was to set up diagnostic facilities for smallpox. The work of CPHL expanded, and in 1951 the building of the ''tower block'' (Fig. 4.1), was begun. VRL was housed on the third floor of this building, and much of the...

Chronological Age Differences

Of particular interest to developmental psychologists have been age-related changes in intelligence test scores. The results of earlier cross-sectional studies (e.g., Jones & Conrad, 1933 Yerkes, 1921) suggested that, on the average, test scores decline steadily after late adolescence. For example, Yerkes found that mean scores on the Army Examination Alpha administered to large groups of American soldiers during and shortly after World War I declined from the late teens through the sixth decade of life. The general form of the curve drawn from data obtained from Jones and Conrad's classic study of 1,200 New Englanders between 10 and 60 years of age was an increase in mean scores on the Army Alpha from age 10 to 16 and a gradual decline to the age-14 level by age 55. These findings of a decline in intelligence test scores during middle and later adulthood were supported by Wechsler's (1958) analysis of scores on the Wechsler-Bellevue Form I and, more recently, by standardization data...

Historical Significance

There have been several reports of ricin being used as a weapon both at home and abroad. A ricin-containing bomb, code-named compound W, was developed and tested by the United States, in collaboration with Britain, before World War I. Ricin was used in injection form to assassinate Georgi Markov, a Bulgarian defector, in 1978. In 1994 and 1995, four men from a tax protest group were convicted of possessing ricin as a biological weapon. Plans linked to al Qaeda to produce ricin were found in Afghanistan in November 2001. In October 2003 a package containing ricin and a threatening note were sent to a South Carolina post office. In May and June of 2004, ground castor beans were found in jars of Gerber Banana Yogurt Dessert in California.

Vitamin A Deficiency Infection and Mortality in Developing Countries A Recurring Theme

Deficiency as a public health problem in developing countries in the 1950s. The FAO WHO Expert Committee on Nutrition recognized that dried skimmed milk production had increased greatly after World War II, and that it was a surplus food being considered for distribution in developing countries in the form of food aid. The expert committee recommended that dried skimmed milk be fortified with vitamin A (85).

Trichothecene Mycotoxins

Trichothecene mycotoxins are perhaps a more obscure cause of food-borne disease of some historical importance. Produced by fungus growing at low temperatures on grain, these toxins are extremely fastidious. Trichothecene mycotoxins may affect refugee populations or those involved in disasters that interrupt the normal harvesting and processing of cereal grains. They are thought to be responsible for the illness and death of thousands in Soviet Russia during and after World War II when wheat was unable to be harvested in a timely fashion. Their resistance to degradation makes them easy to weaponize. Refugees from Cambodia and Laos after the Vietnam War have reported Yellow Rain, possibly dropped from low-flying aircraft, causing symptoms of trichothecene mycotoxin poisoning. It also has been suggested that these toxins have been used by both the Soviets in Afghanistan and by Iraq in its battles with Iran.

Ethical Issues in the Quality of Care

In the 1970s, major right-to-die cases such as Quinlan and Saikewicz (Superintendent of Belchertown State Sch. v. Saikewicz, 370 N.E. 2nd 417 Mass. 1977 and In re Quinlan, 355 A. 2nd 647 N.J. 1976 ) were decided. Since then, ethical debate and analysis have become commonplace in the health care delivery system, though ethical decision-making systems are not fully integrated into it. While ethics has always been an acknowledged and essential component of professional practice, the impact of medical technology and the sociopolitical evolution since World War II have resulted in an increasing awareness that ethical questions and issues arising in the health care environs extend far beyond a ''professional'' code of ethics and touch each individual within society and society as a whole. Organ transplantation, the use of fetal tissue for research and treatment, abortion, assisted suicide, genetic manipulation, and health care rationing are just a few of the issues confronting the health...

Overview And Historical Significance

Pulmonary agents were originally developed for use as chemical warfare agents in World War I. They currently are employed primarily in industrial applications either as substrates, products, or byproducts. Due to their ease of synthesis, however, their diversion to use as weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) is a very real possibility. This chapter discusses chlorine, phosgene, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Generally, highly soluble gases (i.e., ammonia) produce upper respiratory tract (e.g., eyes, nose, and throat) disease since they are readily absorbed, while less-soluble gases (phosgene and nitrogen dioxide) penetrate deeper with subsequent lower respiratory tract pathology. The reader should refer to specific chapters regarding other gases.

Conservation Status

Lingcod have been extremely depleted since the 1980s in Puget Sound, and since the 1990s in the Strait of Georgia. Outer coast populations have become over-fished in more recent years. It has been demonstrated mathematically that even the earliest hand-line fisheries prior to World War II led to significant reduction in lingcod biomass in inland seas around Vancouver and Seattle. More efficient otter trawls in the 1940s greatly increased levels of landings, which in British Columbia exceeded eight million pounds per year (over 3,700 metric tons). Landings in the Strait of Georgia were negligible when the commercial fishery closed in 1990, but since then it has become evident that sport fishing alone can prevent population recovery near metropolitan areas. Lingcod are of interest for management strategies that include protection within sanctuaries (marine protected areas).

Current Food Supply And Demand

Malthus proposed in 1798 remains as controversial as when they first appeared. Malthus's hypothesis remained an important unanswered question for years after the bicentennial of Malthus's paper. Brown et al. (1999) point out what additional issues complicate the simplistic Malthusian thought are additional constraints of public health and global economy. One major intervening force has been the emergence of new and reemerging infectious diseases, which in the absence of global war have had an equivalent effect in terms of human suffering and death worldwide. Ironically, these epidemics are occurring again in spite of advanced medical technologies and accelerated methods of health care delivery and immunization. To further complicate the issue, the conventional practice of agriculture has not doubled and cannot double the production of plant and animal-based foods, which are still at the mercy of nature and its disasters. Presumably, biotechnology has emerged as a solution, or an...

Adventitious Agents Hepatitis B and Avian Leucosis Viruses in 17D Chick Embryo Vaccine

However, with the advent of World War II, large numbers of military personnel were immunized with vaccine prepared in New York with pooled human serum. In 1942, a massive outbreak of jaundice occurred, with approximately 28,000 cases and 62 deaths from fulminant hepatitis 78 . Investigation into this outbreak was coordinated by the Commission on Tropical Diseases and the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board, under the direction of Wilbur Sawyer, and involved studies at the Rockefeller laboratories, several universities, and a number of Army bases. As a result of these investigations and of earlier studies in Brazil which clearly implicated the human serum component of the vaccine, 17D was henceforth manufactured without serum by the Rockefeller Foundation and the US Public Health Service 79 and no further cases were recorded. In a serological study conducted many years later, Seeff et al. confirmed that the hepatitis B virus was responsible for the jaundice epidemic in yellow fever...

Project Title Heart Disease And The Emergence Of Modern Epidemiology

Summary (provided by applicant) Epidemiology is currently the science of public health mad file major intellectual system, along with economics, for studying, justifying and developing public health policy. Despite its deep influence on medicine, science, health policy and American culture over the past 40 years, there is presently no systematic history of epidemiology in the United States, particularly for the second half of the 20th century. The objective of this proposal is to write a social and intellectual history of the origins, development, and impact of one of the most important areas of epidemiology during the last century, that of coronary heart disease (CHD). The work will begin early in the 20th century, just before the epidemiological transition, when mortality from heart disease and cancer surpassed deaths from communicable disorders. With this introductory period (1900-1945) as prologue, the book will then focus on the emergence, after World War II, of an epidemiology...

The Role of Tissue Culture in Vaccine Development

Enders' leadership of this group was exemplary of his role for more than 20 years as a basic microbiologist. He had come late to the field, following an unsuccessful career as a real-estate salesman and 4 years in the study of Celtic and Teutonic languages as a doctoral candidate at Harvard. In one of those serendipitous events that markedly alter life patterns, he had obtained a room in a boarding house shared with several Harvard medical students, including Hugh Ward, an Australian Rhodes Scholar who was working in the laboratories of the famed Hans Zinsser. Captivated by the work of Ward and his associates, Enders abandoned his nearly completed PhD in English and joined the Department of Bacteriology and Immunology at Harvard Medical School where he finally received a doctorate and his first faculty appointment at the age of 32. He was a Renaissance scholar who knew literature, music and philosophy as well as microbiology. When, after 15 years with Zinsser, he established his own...

Hypovolemia dehydration and hemoconcentration

Dehydration was reported as a factor that increases the risk of DI during studies on aviators during World War II, and it is still considered a significant risk factor by the international diving and diving medical communities. The mechanism is however again unclear and reliable scientific evidence is missing. Changes in the surface tension in serum favoring bubble formation has been postulated as a possible mechanism. Alcohol ingestion prior to diving, also seems to be a risk factor - possibly due to dehydration.

Geographic Differences In Rates Of Parkinsons Disease

Although the findings are inconsistent, a higher prevalence of PD in urban areas argues for byproducts of industrialization as risk factors for PD. Several studies suggest that increasing industrialization may increase PD risk. Schoenberg et al. compared the prevalence of PD in Copiah County, Mississippi, U.S.A. (341 100,000 over age 39) to Igbo-Ora, Nigeria (67 100,000 over age 39) using similar methodology, and studying genetically similar populations. They concluded that environmental factors may be responsible for the observed higher prevalence in the industrialized U.S. population (26). In contrast, a study (27) of PD in Estonia found a similar prevalence of PD in urban and rural regions, although the definitions of urban and rural were unclear. A small study (25) conducted in a health district in Canada found a lower risk of PD in industrialized areas of the district. In a population-based mortality study, Rybicki et al. (28) demonstrated that counties in Michigan, U.S.A. with a...

The Past Was Not a Prolog

There is a continuity of ideas in science which depends on contact between generations. During World War II, I was working at Rockefeller Institute Yellow Fever Research Laboratory in Brazil, where I met Max Theiler, who recently developed a live yellow fever vaccine. This friendship led to other conversations held later in New York, after I had immigrated to the USA in 1945, and took a job with Lederle Laboratories. By 1941, chimpanzees had been infected by poliovirus given orally, and it seemed likely that the disease was transmitted by the oral route 6 .

The Development of IPV

The development of any vaccine against poliomyelitis looked a bleak prospect at the end of World War II. Vaccines made in the 1930s by Kolmer 1 and Brodie 2 from virus extracted from monkey central nervous system (CNS) tissue infected with poliovirus and either partially attenuated 1 or treated with formalin 2 proved to be unsafe. As a result of cell culture experiments carried out by Sabin and Olitsky 3 , poliovirus was thought to be strictly neurotropic. This appeared to

The Link Between Birth Weight and Later Health

Beyond the obvious relevance for many regions of the world where food supplies are inadequate for pregnant women, these observations have proven to be germane to understanding long-lasting changes in population health after acute periods of deprivation during wars and environmental disasters. The best-documented example is certainly the decade-long effects of the Dutch Hunger famine in 1944 when the Netherlands was subjected to extreme food rationing during World War II (Ravelli et al, 1976). Food intake for many pregnant women was reduced to 500-800 calories per day for several months. When the deprivation occurred late in gestation, the neonates were of smaller size and grew up to be at greater risk for obesity and diabetes (Ravelli et al, 1998). For the pregnant women who experienced food restriction earlier in pregnancy and subsequently had access to a better diet, their babies were born at a larger size, but continued to be more likely to develop cardiovascular disease by 50...

Asian Pacific Islander Americans

Not permit Asian and Pacific Island women to enter this country, combined with the detention of Japanese-Americans in concentration campus during World War II, left a reservoir of negative feelings in some members of the Asian-American community. Be that as it may, Asian-Americans are perhaps the best example of how the United States can still be a land of opportunity for immigrants who are skilled and motivated to work and save.

Historical Background

Outbreaks of toxicoses associated with the ingestion of moldy foods and feeds by humans and animals have also been recorded in last century. Deaths of livestock were reported earlier from consumption of moldy corn in feed of horses in Illinois, Russia and swine in Southeastern United States (Christiansen and Kauffman 1969) in the 1930s. A well-documented example is the disease called alimentary toxic aleukia (ATA) that resulted in more than 5000 deaths in humans in the Orenberg district of the USSR during World War II, and the cause of later was found to be trichothecene mycotoxins. Modern myco-toxicology was not developed until the discovery of aflatoxins in the early 1960s as the causative agent in the peanut meal causing the Turkey X disease that killed more than 10,000 turkeys fed with the contaminated meal. Because aflatoxins are a series of highly potent carcinogens produced by commonly occurring Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, research has focused new attention on...

Approaches to the Study of the Mind

Since the Second World War scientists from different disciplines have turned to the study of the human mind. Computer scientists have tried to emulate its capacity for visual perception. Linguists have struggled with the puzzle of how children acquire language. Ethologists have sought the innate roots of social behaviour. Neurophysiologists have begun to relate the function of nerve cells to complex perceptual and motor processes. Neurologists and neuropsychologists have used the pattern of competence and incompetence of their brain-damaged patients to elucidate the normal workings of the brain. Anthropologists have examined the conceptual structure of cultural practices to advance hypotheses about the basic principles of the mind. These days one meets engineers who work on speech perception, biologists who investigate the mental

Fairy Bluebirds Leafbirds And People

Leafbirds are well-represented in art, with the Chinese depicting them since at least the fifteenth century. Many other varieties of this family have been prized as well for their beauty and were shipped commercially in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Before World War II, India was the largest supplier of these birds. By the 1950s and 1960s, Thailand, and then Indonesia were major sources. By the 1990s, China exported them until a ban was imposed on caged birds in 2001. Indonesia then played the key role in their export. Their tendency to fight with other birds has made them unsuitable for mixed groups of species.

Anaerobic myonecrosis or gas gangrene

A battlefield horror, gas gangrene, affected war wounds in around 5 of cases during World War 1 1 in World War 2and in 0.016 of cases during the Vietnam War20. Its current incidence is low, although there has been an increase over the last 20 years, due to the increase of road injuries, errors in prophylaxis and mostly due to surgical practice where one-step repair procedures tend to be used21. Current incidence is estimated at 0.1 to 0.4 cases per year per 100 000 inhabitants22. In our own area, we have treated 165 cases in 15 years - in a recruitment area of 5 million inhabitants (Lille, Northern France).

The role of early environment

Notwithstanding the substantial body of evidence from animal models, the evidence that this mechanism is a potent force in influencing T2D susceptibility in humans is somewhat limited. There are reports that T2D is more prevalent in individuals born following severe calorie restriction (for example during the Second World War) (Ravelli et al., 1998) but these are inconsistent (Stanner et al., 1997) and studies of monozygotic twins discordant for T2D have shown that the diabetic co-twin was generally the smaller one at birth (Poulsen etal., 1997).

The One Gene One Enzyme Hypothesis

Following the Second World War, the face of genetics was transformed as biochemists and geneticists teamed up to explore what genes do in the cell, and what they are. What was new was not the concept that genes function by way of enzymes, but the use of microorganisms. Single-celled microbes allowed geneticists to avoid the complexity of tissue differentiation and cellular integration when searching for a bridge between gene and character. The geneticist isolated mutants that were found to be unable to grow, or that grew poorly on a well-defined growth medium, and the biochemist sought the reason for this inability. Thus, a suitable organism for biochemical genetics was one whose sex life and growth could be brought under meticulous control. The model organisms of classical genetics, Drosophila, corn, and mice, so useful for establishing the chromosome theory of inheritance, were quickly outcompeted by rapidly reproducing microorganisms fungi, yeast, algae, protists, and bacteria.

Domesticating Microbes

The revolution in biochemical genetics was not the result of a new theoretical insight, but of a technical breakthrough. The new microbial techniques' profound importance for the genetic analysis of metabolic pathways was indisputable. No previous studies of gene action using plants or animals had come close to matching the Neurospora technology in scope and detail. Microbiology and genetics had developed apart prior to the Second World War. Microbiology was strong on the applied side, being of considerable importance to medicine and industry. Biochemists had studied their metabolism and enzyme activities and defined their nutritional requirements, their ability to use certain compounds as sources of carbon, and their sensitivity to antibiotics. In all biochemical respects, microbes were fundamentally similar to plants and animals, but their genetics had not been explored. In most cases, they seemed to reproduce solely vegetatively their small size and lack of obvious sexual...

Significance to humans

Appreciation for the beauty of members of the genus Chloropsis is centuries old. Leafbirds have appeared in Chinese art as early as the fifteenth century. The London Zoo obtained an orange-bellied leafbird as early as 1879, and by its centennial, in 1927, had exhibited two other species. In the twentieth century, various leafbirds (traditionally called fruit-suckers) arrived in large commercial shipments to Europe and America. Prior to the Second World War, India was the major source, succeeded by Thailand in the 1950s and 1960s, then by Indonesia and the People's Republic of China in the 1990s. China imposed an export ban on cage birds in 2001, making, for the time being, Indonesia the only commercial source. Due to their pugnacious behavior, they had a justified reputation as being unsuited for small mixed aviaries, and were traditionally kept as pets in small cages.

Plasmon to Plasmagenes

The idea that the cytoplasm may be largely responsible for macroevolution and for early development was widely discussed among paleontologists and embry-ologists in many countries. If true, the cytoplasm's effects would usually be detected only by crossing widely different groups. This would be difficult to test, because matings between distantly related animals were sterile. But it was possible in some plants. Between the two world wars, leading botanists in Germany, including Carl Correns and his student Fritz von Wettstein, Otto Renner, Friedrich Oehlkers, and later Peter Michaelis turned to investigate the role of the cytoplasm in heredity and to challenge what some called the nuclear monopoly. 11 After the Second World War, the debate arose anew with the emergence of microbial genetics and studies of gene action. The idea that the cytoplasm might control the fundamental traits of the organism was revitalized. Several leading European biologists, including Boris Ephrussi, Andr...

Remote Physiological Monitoring

Gear intended to fit under or on clothing to measure various parameters of bodily function and environmental conditions has existed since the late 1940s. Beginning soon after World War II, the U.S. Air Force, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA), and its successor, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), built a series of rocket-powered experimental aircraft to explore flight at very high speeds and altitudes. In 1947, Charles Yeager flew the X-1 past mach 1 in 1956, the X-2 flew at nearly mach 3. Two years later an X-2 test pilot set a world altitude record of nearly 126,000 feet. By 1967 a pilot flying North American Aviation's X-15 had reached Mach 6.7, soaring 60 miles above the Earth's surface.Test pilots flying in the late 1950s and after needed special suits, helmets, and oxygen supply systems to stay alive, and scientists needed to collect data on human performance in their cockpits. Physiologic data was not collected consistently throughout...

Principles Of Research Ethics

The first principle, voluntarism, is a modification of the autonomy principle. All research subjects must voluntarily consent to participation in research. Lack of voluntary consent can occur in a variety of ways. The most extreme is explicitly forcing subjects to participate completely against their will. The most notable example of forcing subjects to participate totally against their will is Nazi research conducted during World War II. Most other violations of the principle involve not informing subjects that they are research subjects, not informing them that they can refuse to participate, or not providing sufficient information so that they can make an informed decision whether to participate or not. An example of a study that did not inform subjects that they were participating in research is the Jewish Chronic-Disease Hospital Study of elderly patients, including some who were demented, who were injected with cancer The first modern code of research ethics is the Nuremberg...

Research Population And Setting

Ethical issues also arise from the population being studied and the setting in which the study is being conducted. Certain settings may have a greater likelihood of raising concerns about coercion or the ability of subjects to provide informed consent. Coercion issues arise when there is the possibility that the setting in which the research will take place will make subjects reluctant to refuse participation in research. In part, these concerns stem from the Nazi era when defendants at the Nuremberg trial insisted that they asked Jewish prisoners if they wanted to participate and only included in research protocols those who agreed. The Nazis cited World War II-era research conducted on conscientious objectors as equally coercive. Likewise, prisoners often have seen participation in research as a way to demonstrate their ''good behavior'' that might lead to early release. Due to fear that the potential of early release is coercive and prevents informed consent, there have been calls...

Captivity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

In reaction to the mistreatment of prisoners of war during the nineteenth century, beginning in 1864 a series of international meetings known as the Geneva Convention was held. The result was a set of rules regarding the humane treatment of prisoners of war, as well as the sick, the wounded, and those who died in battle. Despite some improvements as a result of the Geneva Convention and the rules for the treatment of prisoners of war that were defined at the Second Hague Conference of 1907, the conditions under which prisoners existed continued to be atrocious in many instances. During World War II for example, American soldiers captured by the Japanese were subjected to inhuman treatment and forced to survive on a near-starvation diet. In many ways, however, American soldiers who were taken prisoner by the Viet Cong or North Vietnamese during the Vietnam War suffered an even worse fate. Reminiscent of the treatment of inmates in concentration camps during World War 11, prisoners in...

Department Of Defense

Protection against biological warfare has long been a part of force protection for the military. As the threat has evolved, protection against biological terrorism on domestic and overseas installations has also improved. As diseases do not respect installation boundaries, and the well-being of military retirees and family members is also of importance to the military, the DoD has greatly increased its surveillance efforts to identify natural or deliberate disease outbreaks at the earliest possible point in time. Presidential Decision Directive NSTC-7 (June 1996) stated that the United States will strengthen domestic infectious disease surveillance and response. It expanded the mission of the DoD to include support of global surveillance, training, research, and response to emerging infectious disease threats (White House, 2005). In response to this directive, DoD established the Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS). The DoD-GEIS is designed to...

Risk Factors for Vitamin A Deficiency

Xerophthalmia has been associated with larger household size in Indonesia (285) and larger family size in urban Bangladesh (747), but no relationship was found between xerophthalmia and household size in Malawi (673). In Bangladesh, a family size of three or more children compared to one or two children was associated with an increased risk of xerophthalmia (OR 3.2, 95 CI 1.61-6.50) (748). Larger overall fluctuations in poverty may account for changes in the incidence of xerophthalmia over time. In Egypt between 1912 and 1931, the incidence of xerophthalmia in government ophthalmic hospitals peaked in 1913 and in 1918-1919, the former peak coinciding with economic crisis in Egypt and the latter peak coincided with poor conditions in the country at the end of World War I (749).

Introduction of Typhoid Vaccination A Wright or R Pfeiffer

In September 1896, in the Lancet article, Almoth Wright, a British researcher, reported on the use of oral calcium chloride for the treatment of serous hemorrhages in patients suffering from defective blood coagulopathies, and also demonstrated its usefulness to control local side-effects after subcutaneous injection of typhoid bacilli 8 . In this article, he quoted experiments with heat-kill, phenol-preserved typhoid vaccine in a horse, and subsequently in two officers of the Indian Medical Corps, one of whom then received an inoculum of the wild type S. typhi and appeared protected. Wright was then sufficiently obstinate and convincing to obtain evaluation of his vaccine in 2,835 volunteers in the Indian Army 9 . Despite local and generalized adverse reactions that were carefully examined by several panels of experts, results were considered sufficiently convincing to decide to vaccinate British troops engaged in the Boer War. As a consequence of this constant pressure, by World War...

The history of tuberculosis in the United States

Was determined annually beginning in 1930 but this figure did not become an accurate reflection of disease incidence until 1952 when inactive cases were no longer included. As shown in Fig. 1B, morbidity and mortality rates were consistently decreasing with the exceptions of increased death rates during World War I, a transient levelling of the new case rate in the early 1960s and an apparent increase in new case rates in the mid-1970s due to a change in reporting criteria. Although it is stated frequently that the tuberculosis situation was improving prior to the advent of chemotherapy, it is clear from Fig. 1B that the decline in mortality rates accelerated at the time chemotherapy became available in the late 1940s. Because accurate data on case rates weren't available until after chemotherapy appeared, its impact on morbidity can't be determined.

Typhoid Fever Morbidity and Mortality in Relation to Vaccination A Debate

The best evidence that vaccination was effective was the spectacular drop in the number of cases of typhoid fever among the military personnel who were involved in the various conflicts that marked our century. From September 1914 to May 1915, 65,748, cases of typhoid fever were reported in the French army, with 11,000 deaths. After immunization became systematic, the incidence of typhoid fever dramatically dropped. During the last year of the war, only 615 cases were reported, despite poor hygiene conditions in trenches. Whether typhoid vaccination saved World War I is of course another issue. Likewise, from September 1939 to May 1940 the number of reported cases was 144 (with 5 deaths) in a largely immunized French military population. Similar experiences have been reported in other armies with some limitations however. In both wars, many outbreaks of typhoid fever were reported in properly immunized troops, raising doubts among some sanitary authorities about the actually efficacy...

Liudvikas Jagminas md Robert E Antosia md mph

Terrorists now have an improved ability to collect information, raise money, and disseminate rhetoric. Advanced information technology available through the Internet allows extremists to communicate widely and efficiently. Additionally, publicly available databases serve as repositories for technical information relating to weapons production. Another important factor is that WMDs, together with the materials and technology used to make them, are increasingly available. Many of these materials are widely available for legitimate commercial purposes. Moreover, the disintegration of the former Soviet Union has increased concerns about the protection, control, and accountability of WMDs, related materials and technologies, and the potential unemployment and proliferation of thousands of scientists skilled in the field. A final factor is the relative ease of manufacture and delivery of WMDs. Facilities required to produce radiological, biological, and chemical weapons are small and hard...

David J Schlyer

Radioisotopes can be classified into two basic groups, those that are neutron rich and those that are neutron deficient. Although there are ambiguities in this classification, for our purposes it serves to separate the radioisotopes which are usually made in a reactor (neutron rich) from those that are made with a particle accelerator (neutron deficient). Particle accelerators and in particular cyclotrons, were very important in the preparation of radioisotopes during the years of 1935 to the end of World War Two (WWII). Nuclear fission was yet to be controlled and the amount of radioactive material which could be produced in an accelerator was many times greater than the amount which could be produced using the alpha particles from naturally occurring radioactive elements.


Rapidly progressive forms of tuberculosis in adults which have been compared to disseminated forms of tuberculosis seen in early childhood (Cummins 1929). Borrel (1920) eloquently described these features amongst Black French colonial troops in France during the First World War and contrasted them with those amongst other colonial troops whose communities had a long experience of 'tuberculization.' In these latter troops a more indolent, slowly progressing form of tuberculosis tended to be seen with a lower mortality. As the epidemic wave proceeds, fewer and fewer children are affected, the adolescent rise flattens and mortality falls. In the final stages of the epidemic mainly older men are affected. The causes of the decline in this wave are speculative, but the elimination of susceptibles by a high mortality in the early stages of the epidemic and the creation of a genetically resistant group has been proposed (Grigg 1958, Bates & Stead 1993).

Economic Factors

Understanding the vicissitudes of head and neck cancer management in the United States following World War II requires insight into the economics of medicine. Fees for services prior to World War II financed health care. Doctors and hospitals billed patients, and patients paid their bills. The union movement was strong in the United States after the war. Unions, through collective bargaining, negotiated health care benefits for their members. Employers paid for the workers' health insurance. This introduced a third party into the fee for service system, but bills were paid without negotiation. The popularity of insurance programs gradually expanded to the nonunion sectors of the economy. The availability of financing and the American belief that ''more is better'' allowed the growth of therapy programs combining surgery with radiation. These programs aim at increasing rates of cure and decreasing the number of local and neck cancer recurrences. Such combined therapy programs are an...

War and Racism

Conservatives were generally reluctant to accept evolutionary theory, but there was one field in which Darwinism was vigorously applied by conservative politicians and ideologues international relations. Taking the nation as a unit of struggle, British social Darwinists of the nineteenth century, for example, validated their empire building by claiming that uncivilized races were being taken over by a superior social order. Darwinism was used to justify war and struggles for social and or racial supremacy. When the First World War began, British writers turned again and again to Darwinian analogies to stir up enthusiasm for it.

Chemical carcinogens

Reproductive history, although not appearing to fall under the heading of chemical carcinogenesis, exert their carcinogenic effects through chemical processes. Of the estimated 10 million existing chemical compounds only 50 have been identified as carcinogenic to man. Those to which exposure occurs in the workplace include benzene, chromium compounds, coal tar, mineral oils, nickel and various solvents used in the rubber industry. Their effects are site related coal-tar and mineral oils cause cancer of the skin, lung and bladder nickel of the nasal sinuses and lung and arsenic of skin, lung and liver. Improvements in industrial hygiene since the Second World War with constant surveillance for potential 'clusters' of cases of cancer around factories has greatly reduced these hazards. As the latent period between exposure and cancer is generally long, the hazard may have disappeared before its association with cancer can be identified.


In Hiroshima and Nagasaki there has been an excess mortality from cancer as a result of the nuclear weapons detonated over these cities. Leukaemia accounts for half of all cancer deaths, but a small but significant increase in the incidence of tumours affecting lung, gastrointestinal tract, bladder, breast and ovaries has also been recorded. Radiation exposure during early life is particularly hazardous for breast cancer and leukaemia.

Stress Syndromes

One of the most dramatic and widely discussed disorders stemming from the Vietnam War is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Similar conditions were called shell shock in World War I and combat fatigue insomnia or combat neurosis in World War II and the Korean War. PTSD is, of course, not limited to the casualties of war Earthquakes, fires, airplane crashes, and other disasters produce their share of victims. PTSD involves feelings of anxiety, insomnia, nightmares, problems with social relationships, and other emotional responses. In many cases, flashbacks associated with the stressful experience may occur months or even years after the stressful experience (Roberts, 1988).

Andrea Watts

Over the years, shifting government agendas have influenced the approach taken to crime prevention, with academic debate often reflecting the socio-political zeitgeist. For example, prior to the First World War, early positivist perspectives that saw crime as a product of individual dispositions, were more acceptable to the Establishment than focusing on the social and environmental conditions that could give rise to crime (Blackburn, 1993). Later, in the United States, the identification of so-called 'delinquency areas' characterised by poverty and decay (e.g. Shaw and McKay, 1931) led to a presumption that targeting school drop-outs, disadvantaged youth, minority group members, etc., would ameliorate the increasing crime rates (Kobrin, 1959). This 'social positivism' was in turn criticised for focusing on conditions that could not easily be altered. In an important paradigm shift, criminologists such as James Q. Wilson (e.g. Wilson and Herrnstein, 1985) advocated the implementation...


This group of hormones was isolated and characterised following a study of interspecies signals. A fungal disease of rice, common in Japan, was the cause of abnormally high growth of the plant associated with yellowing leaves and wilting. In 1926, Eishii Kurosawa added a culture filtrate of the fungus to normal rice plants and demonstrated that a substance present in this filtrate led to the enhanced cell elongation that resulted in extra tall plants (Kurosawa, 1926). This, and the even later isolation of GAa and GAB by Yabata and Sumiki (1938), was published in Japanese and remained untranslated until after World War II. The knowledge that auxin analogues could be used as selective herbicides led to a crescendo of research in the West to discover more natural growth-regulating compounds in plants. The Japanese literature then revealed the potential of the family of gibberellin-related substances, and their presence in higher plants as well as in fungi. Although present in all plants,...

Colorectal injury

Defunctioning colostomy was the standard management of penetrating colonic injury from the time of World War II until 1979 when the first randomised trial was undertaken which showed that primary repair of colonic injuries was appropriate for selected patients. A Cochrane Database Review from 2003 demonstrated that mortality was not significantly different between patients with penetrating colonic injury treated by primary repair or faecal diversion. However, total complications were significantly less in the primary repair group. While

Twin Studies

Although earlier twin studies in PD were inconclusive (19-21), Tanner et al. (22) demonstrated the presence of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of PD when disease begins at or before age 50 years. They studied twins enrolled in the twin registry of the National Academy of Science and the National Research Council World War II Veteran Twins Registry. No genetic component was evident when the onset of symptoms occurred after age 50 years. A more recent study using the Swedish Twin Registry, conducted by Wirdefeldt et al. (23), demonstrated low concordance rates in twins, whether monozygotic or dizygotic. However, both of these studies were largely based on limited, cross-sectional clinical observations, and diagnostic accuracy might be improved by longitudinal evaluations (24).

Melvin Sabshin

Important also for psychiatry has been the normality as utopia concept (Offer & Sabshin, 1966), which became very significant in the latter half of the twentieth century. Intrinsic to the psychotherapeutic ideology and correlated highly with psychoanalytic theory, this concept of normality has been employed primarily in the United States, reaching its zenith in the quarter of a century after World War II. In effect, it was postulated that all individuals proceed through developmental stages throughout their lives, but very few achieve full adaptation to the multiple tasks of child and adolescent development. Some individuals were noted to be psychologically arrested at earlier stages of development and subsequently demonstrated gross psychopathology, while others manifested less severe difficulties. For psychoanalysts, in the absence of an adequate nosology and with a focus on intrapsychic conflict, it was often postulated that some individuals experienced trauma severe enough to...

Global Distribution

Vitamin A deficiency is not a public health problem in Singapore, which is among the countries with the highest standards of living in the world. It is notable that keratomalacia was once present and showed a steady decrease in incidence since World War II (617).

Miscellaneous Injury

Phosgene gas is a unique exposure because it may cause severe delayed pulmonary edema. It was the most lethal of the World War I gases. Phosgene is currently used in the manufacture of dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, polyurethanes, and metallur-gic applications, with an estimated worldwide production of five billion pounds. Treatment is mainly supportive, with oxygen, steroids, and inhaled beta-2 agonists. The key point is to first suspect phosgene gas exposure and then admit the patient for close monitoring for 24 hours.


Although Iceland only recently (1944) has become a sovereign state after many centuries of colonialism, it has since World War II transformed from being one of Europe's poorest into being among the richest countries in the world by per capita measures. Its culture and social structure resembles other Scandinavian countries and strong market ties remain to the European market without being a member of the European Union.

Training and Combat

Meanwhile, on the home front, the civilian population may or may not provide moral and psychological support for the efforts of their armed forces. Due in some measure to the success of government propaganda and the greater clarity of the reasons for fighting during World War 11, the civilian populations in countries on both sides were highly supportive of the efforts of their military forces. However, such was not the case with a large segment of the American population that was opposed to the Vietnam War. American soldiers who returned from Vietnam were not greeted by parades and glory. In fact, rather than being honored as heroes, they often found themselves vilified as murderers and baby-killers. Incidents such as the napalm bombing of Vietnamese civilians and the My Lai Massacre increased the intensity of disapproval of the war and all who fought in it. In addition, during the Vietnam War, the murder rate in the United States increased by 42 , compared with an increase of only 11...

History of Hepatitis

History records the occurrence of icteric disease as early as 400 bc (Table 1) 1, 2 . The concept of contagiousness was evolved during the millennium from 700 to 1700 ad. This was followed by two centuries of endless and illiterate argument about the causation of the disease, in spite of compelling examples of epidemics of campaign jaundice in the military that indicated its infectious nature. Infectious etiology was well established in the early 1900s, by observed jaundice in the recipients of yellow fever vaccines stabilized with human serum and in the reuse of nonsterilized syringes that had been employed in administering drugs against syphilis. The final fact came from experimentation in human volunteers during World war II, in which infectious and serum hepatitis were defined and were named hepatitis A and B.


Immigrants as they arrived at Ellis Island and was followed by others with even more extreme views. Robert Yerkes persuaded the United States army to let him administer intelligence tests to millions of recruits in the First World War, and although the army largely ignored the results, the experience provided Yerkes and others with the platform and the data to support their claim that intelligence testing could be of commercial and national use in sorting people quickly and easily into different streams. The army tests had great influence in the debate leading to the passage in 1924 by Congress of an Immigration Restriction Act setting strict quotas for southern and eastern Europeans on the grounds that they were stupider than the 'Nordic' types that had dominated the American population prior to 1890. The Act's aims had little to do with science. It was more an expression of racial prejudice and union protectionism. But it found its excuses in the pseudoscience of intelligence...

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